Английский язык, контрольные работы. Российский Новый Университет.
1.1. Translate the text.
A SHORT TOUR ON ECONOMIC THEORY OF COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE
Economists are usually accused of three sins: an inability to agree among them-selves; slating the obvious; and giving bad advice. In the field of international trade, they would be right to plead not guilty to all three, if there is one proposition with which virtually all economists agree, it is that free trade is almost always better than protection.
The argument for free trade is based on the theory of comparative advantage. This is one of the oldest theories in economics, usually ascribed to David Ricardo, an Englishman who wrote in the early 19th century.
Economists' next argument for free trade is that opening up markets to foreign suppliers increases competition. Without free trade, domestic companies may have enjoyed monopolies or oligopolies that enabled them to keep prices well above marginal costs. Competition should also spur domestic companies to greater efficiency because they will not be able to pass on the costs in slackness in higher prices. In addition, free trade means that firms are no longer limited by the size of their home country, but can sell into bigger markets. In industries where average production costs fall as output increases, producing economies of scale, this means lower costs and prices. In such industries, trade also increases the variety of products on offer. If a car manufacturer were limited to its home market, it would have a choice between producing small quantities of a number of models and large quantities of just a few, which could be produced more cheaply thanks to economics of scale. But given free trade, it would be able to produce more models because they could all be produced in large enough number.
All these arguments revolve around re-allocating resources to produce one-off improvements - what economists call the «static» gains from trade. But they think there are also "dynamic" gains to be had: freer trade can mean faster economic growth.
In recent years, theories of economic growth have become more sophisticated. Moreover, trade disseminates knowledge and technology. Simply by participating in international markets, countries are exposed to other countries' techniques, and have an incentive to copy and improve on them. All this can make the relationship between trade, technology and growth quite complicated. For example, freer trade does not necessary mean faster growth all the time.
If a country's comparative advantage lies in slow-growing, traditional industries, it may cut back its production in other faster-growing industries, so its growth rate may fall. But later on it will benefit from the technical advances of countries with a comparative advantage in faster growing industries, which will give it better computers, more advanced drugs and so forth than if every country had tried to make everything for itself. Slower growth in the short run might therefore be balanced by faster growth in the long term.
1.2. Read the following statements and decide if they are true (T) or false
1. There are two sins that the economists are usually accused of: an inability to agree among themselves and giving bad advice.
2. The argument for free trade is based on the theory of comparative advantage.
3. The theory of the comparative advantage was created by David Ricardo in the 19th century.
4. With free trade, domestic companies may have enjoyed monopolies or oligopolies that enabled them to keep prices well above marginal costs.
5. Competition should spur domestic companies to greater efficiency.
6. Free trade means that firms are limited by the size of their home country, but can sell into bigger markets.
7. In recent years, theories of economic growth have become more sophisticated.
8. Trade disseminates knowledge and technology.
9. Slower growth in the short run might therefore be balanced by faster growth in the long term.
10. Freer trade means faster growth all the time.
1.3. Write sentences, giving some advice, as in the model.
Model: I didn't attend the lectures in Physics, so I have failed the exam. If I were you I would have attended all the lectures.
1. I didn't take part in the conference, so I am not allowed to pass the ex¬am tomorrow.
2. I didn't do my homework because I had forgotten to write it down.
3. I was late for the English lesson yesterday because I had gone to bed late.
4. I don't know much about the history of England.
5. My teacher of Mathematics thinks that I don't work hard.
6. I have not been to our university library yet.
7. I don't feel well because I don't do any sport.
8. I live far from the university.
9. I am afraid I will not pass my exam in Physics.
10. Bob feels bad because he smokes a lot.
1.4. Complete the following sentences with the correct form of modal
verbs or their equivalent.
1. I am sorry. I ... leave now because I ... meet my parents at the airport tomorrow.
2. ... you do me a favor, please?
3. I ... find the text about the last achievements of computer design.
4. I ... report about the results of the experiment tomorrow before the la-boratory work.
5. I . solve my problems later because now I . go.
6. They . invite us to take part in the meeting two days before. Have you got the invitation yet?
7. The head of the company ... start the next meeting if we ask him.
8. You ... support his idea. It will help to avoid the crises in future.
9. You ... give me the contract to look through. I am free at the moment.
10. The manager . inform you yesterday about the changes in
1.5. Fill in the gaps with the correct preposition.
1. Laser has caused a real revolution ... science and technology.
2. Since the invention ... the laser scientists have developed several types . it.
3. Laser is able to transform electrical energy directly . light wave energy.
4. Laser will find its most extensive application . the field . communi-cation.
5. It is a device which converts one form of energy ... another.
6. Management is composed . a team . managers who are responsible . organization at all levels.
7. Managers today are increasingly engaged . fact-based analysis . strategic plans . expanding.
8. Although all four functions are managerial duties, the importance ... each may vary depending . the situation.
9. Economics draws much . its theoretical core . intuition.
10. Economics attracts different people . different reasons.
1.6. Translate the following sentences.
1. I wish I could see him tomorrow.
2. If the teacher gave us the exam questions it would be much easier to prepare.
3. If we hadn't spent too much time on Physics, we would have paid more attention to Computer Science.
4. You had to sort out the information for your report a week ago.
5. They will have to take part in the conference.
6. I haven't finished the article yet but I am sure I will be able to finish it tomorrow.
7. Could you help me with my homework? I couldn't understand the problem during the last lesson, so I need your help.
8. May I use your article to show my colleagues the structure of it?
9. I am not sure if I must attend the lectures of philosophy. I must talk to the dean.
10. I must return the book today. Otherwise, I will never be able to take
any books in the library.
1.7. Translate the following sentences.
1. Когда он был в Лондоне, он мог общаться без переводчика.
2. Вы можете подписать контракт сегодня?
3. Извините, я должен идти. Мне надо завтра прийти в офис в 7.30 утра.
4. Можно мне взять ваш словарь? Я не могу перевести этот абзац.
6. Я не смогу ответить на ваши вопросы завтра, так как буду выну¬жден встретиться с оппонентами.
7. Он смог бы стать сотрудником нашей фирмы, если бы у него бы¬ло экономическое образование.
8. Анна не уверена, надо ли будет ей оформлять визу, чтобы поехать в Египет.
9. Вы должны начать встречу с доклада об экономическом положе¬нии в стране.
10. Вам необходимо представить все необходимые документы до
того как вы уедете из страны.
1.8. Translate the following sentences from. Point out the type of the
1. The interaction model which has been discussed here does not readily apply to more recent data.
2. The above criterion does not necessarily imply that our theory should by all means to be ruled out.
3. A few facts we have must be applied objectively in our considerations.
4. As soon as the date of the symposium becomes known, they will be assigned to go to Moscow.
5. The question remains whether the mathematical interpretation of the physical event is adequate in a strict sense, or whether it gives only an inadequate image of physical reality.
6. He has recently reported this factor to be an integral part of the mechanism.
7. We are not sure whether our suggestion will be confirmed and supported during the next faculty meeting.
8. I am very interested in the project of cooperation between our companies he is working on.
9. I spent a year in Oxford University in order that I could get some additional knowledge in English and Economics.
10. We'll start the experiment if the necessary material, the team of
students and the leader of the group are ready.
1.9. Fill in the gaps with the correct preposition.
1. I have met some people . the conference who are interested . the same problem and similar research.
2. I have never referred to the work which was done . my colleagues.
3. Are you looking . some material . the new article?
4. The results received have much . common . the previous ones.
5. The difficulty . distance education is that it demands great efforts . the students.
6. Social work intervenes . the points where people interact . their environments.
7. In accordance ... the constitution ... Russian Federation, it has managed to create a complex system . social protection measures.
8. Effective managers meet the objectives . the company through a successful combination . management functions.
9. We have enough time to talk . some problems . our company.
1.10. Complete the following sentences about yourself.
1. I would take part in international conference if ...
2. If I started my own business, I would (should) ... .
3. When I was a schoolboy (schoolgirl), I could ... better than now.
4. I hope in the nearest future I will be able to . .
5. As soon as I graduate from the university, I ... .
6. I will probably ask my parents for help (money), if I . .
7. If I were more hardworking, ... .
8. I could have better exam results if I . .
Английский язык выполнение контрольных работ.