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Английский язык контрольная работа. Новосибирский Экономико-Юридический Институт.

Английский язык контрольная работа. Новосибирский Экономико-Юридический Институт.


Text № 1

The Miranda Warning

"You have the right to remain silent; anything you say can be used against you ... ", these are the words of the Miranda warning which was created as a result of 1966 United States Supreme Court case, *Miranda v. Arizona. It began when Ernesto Miranda was arrested at his home and taken into custody to the police station, where he was identified by a witness as a man who had kidnapped and raped a woman. Police officers took Mr. Miranda into an interrogation room and two hours later emerged into a written confession signed by Mr. Miranda that also stated that the confession was made voluntarily and with full knowledge of his legal rights. The officers, however, failed to advise Mr. Miranda that he had a right to have an attorney present and a right not to incriminate himself.
The United States Supreme Court ruled that the confession could not be used as evidence of Mr. Miranda's guilt because he was not fully advised on his legal rights, which included the right to have his attorney present and privilege against self-incrimination. According to the court, the police had forced Miranda to confess during the custody questioning, not with physical force but with the coercion inherent in custodial interrogation. Warnings were required to **dispel that coercion, ^^^-пь^ии, нАШлмл. I ^илшнлн^и .tt*Јu
The Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution states that no person can be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law. To ensure that other accused criminals are made aware of their constitutional rights, the Supreme Court ruled that a suspect who is taken into custody and interrogated must receive a warning of the following rights: the right to remain silent, that anything he says can be used against him in a court of law, that he has the right of the presence of an attorney, and that if he.cannot afford an attorney, one will be appointed for him prior to any questioning if he so desires. The "Miranda warning" is now applied by law officers throughout the United States as a result of this ruling.

* Miranda v. Arizona - Миранда против штата Аризона
** to dispel - зд. смягчить
I. Фонетические упражнения
Упр. 1
Выпишите из текста № 1 слова, в которых ударными являются долгие гласные / J /, / L /, / и: / и дифтонги / el /, / al / (по 5-7 слов на каждый звук). Подчеркните буквы или сочетания букв, передающих эти звуки.

Упр. 2
Запишите следующие слова в транскрипции, прочтите их вслух:
custody    emerge    however    coercion
identify    voluntarily    evidence    ensure
interrogation    knowledge    guilt    aware

Прочитайте текст № 1 вслух.

II. Грамматические упражнения

Английский язык контрольная работа

а)    Выпишите из текста № 1 четыре предложения с модальными глаголами и их эквивалентами. Подчеркните модальные глаголы. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
б)    В следующих предложениях подчеркните модальные глаголы или их эквиваленты. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1.    Interrogators have to rely on different methods to discover the truth.
2.    Psychological methods may be effective in making prisoners or suspects talk.
3.    We ought to drive within the speed limit.
4.    You should ask a crime prevention officer to visit your home
and identify weak points in its security.

Упр. 5
а)    Найдите в тексте № 1 три предложения с неопределенными и отрицательным местоимениями или с их производными, переведите их.
б)    В данных предложениях подчеркните неопределенные и отрицательное местоимения или их производные. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1.    If you don't want someone to burgle your house, you should keep the doors and windows locked.
2.    The accident looked serious but fortunately nobody was injured.
3.    The suspect was taken into custody because there was some evidence to prove that he was guilty.
4.    The former witness has moved to Kenosha. It is somewhere in the north of the USA.

Упр. 6
а)    Выпишите из текста № 1 и переведите два предложения, в которых глагол-сказуемое стоит в Past Perfect.
б)    В данных предложениях подчеркните глаголы-сказуемые, определите их временную форму и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1.    Crime rate has increased during the last decade.
2.    They will have arrived at the crime scene by 9 o'clock.
3.    John isn't at work today because he has had an accident.
4.    He felt much happier when he had found a new job.

Упр. 7
Выпишите из текста № 1 и переведите пять предложений, сказуемые которых употреблены в страдательном залоге. Подчеркните сказуемые.

Упр. 8
Выпишите из текста № 1 и переведите пять предложений, в которых употреблен инфинитив. Подчеркните его.

Упр. 9
Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на –ing - формы:
1.    Не denied doing anything illegal.
2.    The thieves broke in while we were sleeping.
3.    If I see someone climbing in my neighbour's window, I will call the police.
4.    He hates getting stuck in traffic jams.
5.    The investigator and the witness arranged another meeting at a later date.
6.    The combination of custody and interrogation was sufficiently intimidating to require warnings before questioning.

Упр. 10
Выпишите из текста № 1 и переведите по одному предложению на каждый из следующих видов придаточных предложений:
-    дополнительные;
-    определительные;
-    времени;
-    условия;
-    причины.
Подчеркните придаточные предложения, укажите их вид.

III. Лексические упражнения
Упр. 11
Выпишите из текста № 1 и переведите:
а)    шесть производных имен существительных, образованных с помощью суффиксов -ion, -tion, -ment, -er, -al;
б)    два наречия с суффиксом -1у.

Упр. 12
Образуйте глаголы от следующих существительных путем конверсии, дайте перевод и существительного, и глагола:
a reform    a sentence    a test
a benefit    a release    a base
an aim    a face    a grant
Выпишите из текста № 1 словосочетания с этими лексическими единицами и укажите, к какой части речи они принадлежат.

Упр. 13
Переведите текст № 2 письменно.

Text № 2
The Search for the Truth
How can the truth be discovered? Is there a reliable and safe way to make sure others are telling the truth?
Perhaps the best-known scientific method relies on the fact that lying causes stress. Stress creates physical symptoms that can be recorded. The device used to record these symptoms is called a lie detector or polygraph. It is widely used by police and other agencies. It indicates whether a person questioned is being honest as it records changes in the heart rate, blood pressure and other physical factors during questioning.
Most polygraph experts now admit that the method is not perfect: even an innocent person will feel under stress when faced with a serious accusation. As a result, a more accurate technique has been developed. With this technique the person being questioned is instructed to deny questions like "Before 1990, did you ever do anything dishonest?" since most people would be guilty of this to some extent, the polygraph will show some stress caused by the denial of the truth. For innocent people this will be the highest stress they show, while a murderer will become even more stressed when denying a question about his or her involvement in the murder.
The basic problem with all the methods is that if the person is in control, they can easily mislead their questioners, while if the person is not in control due to pain or drugs, what they say may not be true at all.