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Контрольная работа. Английский язык. Московский Государственный Университет Печати.

Контрольная работа. Английский язык.


Text № 1

Criminal and Civil Cases

Crime is a violation of law that forbids or commands an activity. Such crimes as murder, rape, arson are on the books of every country. Because crime is a violation of public order, the government prosecutes criminal cases.
Courts decide both criminal and civil cases. Civil cases stem from disputed claims to something of value. Disputes arise from accidents, contractual obligations and divorce, for example.
Most countries make a rather clear distinction between civil and criminal procedures. For example, an English criminal court may force a defendant to pay a fine as punishment for his crime, and sometimes he has to pay the legal costs of the prosecution. But the victim of the crime pursues his claim for compensation in a civil, not a criminal, action.
Criminal and civil procedures are different. Although some systems, including the English, allow a private citizen to bring a criminal prosecution against another citizen, criminal actions are nearly always started by the state. Civil actions, on the other hand, are usually started by individuals.
Some courts deal with both civil and criminal matters. Others deal exclusivejy with one or the other.
In Anglo-American law, the party bringing a criminal action (that is, in most cases the state) is called the prosecution, but the party bringing a civil action is the plaintiff.
Evidence from a criminal trial is not necessarily admissible as evidence in a civil action about the same matter. For example, the victim of a road accident does not directly benefit if the driver who injured him is found guilty of the crime of careless driving. He still has to prove his case in a civil action. In fact he may be able to prove his civil case even when the driver is found not guilty in the criminal trial.
Once the plaintiff has shown that the defendant is liable, the main argument in a civil court is about the amount of money, or damages, which should be paid to the plaintiff by the defendant.
I. Фонетические упражнения

Упр. 1
Выпишите из текста № 1 слова, в которых ударными являются долгие гласные / i: /, / R /, и дифтонги /ei/, /ai/, /qV / (по 5-6 слов на каждый звук). Подчеркните буквы или сочетания букв, передающие эти звуки.

Упр. 2
Запишите следующие слова в транскрипции, прочтите их вслух.
violation    victim    injure    punishment
prosecution    procedures    guilty    plaintiff
defendant    accident    criminal    argument
Упр. 3
Прочитайте текст № 1 вслух.

II. Грамматические упражнения

Упр. 4
а)    Выпишите из текста № 1 четыре предложения с модальными глаголами и их эквивалентами. Подчеркните модальные глаголы. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
б)    В следующих предложениях подчеркните модальные глаголы или их эквиваленты. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1.    You should take legal advice before starting divorce proceedings.
2.    Courts must decide criminal and civil cases.
3.    Crime prevention programs can help to stop the increase of violent crime rate.

Упр. 5
а)    Найдите в тексте № 1 предложение с неопределенным местоимением some, переведите его;
б)    В данных предложениях подчеркните неопределенные и отрицательное местоимения или их производные. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1.    A decision of the Supreme Court cannot be appealed to any other court.
2.    If I pay this debt, I'll have no money left.
3.    Conflicts caused by the contradictions between civil rights and some of the human needs and interests must be resolved in the courts.
4.    In the USA, as everywhere in the world, the causes of very serious crimes are hotly debated.
5.    I want nothing today. Thank you.
Упр. 6
а)    Найдите в тексте № 1 и переведите предложение, в котором глагол-сказуемое стоит в Present Perfect;
б)    В данных предложениях подчеркните глаголы-сказуемые, определите их временную форму и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. Many communities throughout the world have started their own campaigns against crime.
2. The investigation of this case will have been finished by the next week.
3.    After his wife became ill with asthma, their relationship had deteriorated.
4.    The crime rate in the USA, which rose dramatically in the 1980s and 1990s, has gone down steadily.
5.    Stafford Crown Court was told that there had been a strong bond between father and son.

Упр. 7

Контрольная работа. Английский язык.

Используйте  пять предложений, сказуемые  которых  употреблены   в  страдательном   залоге. Подчеркните сказуемые. 

Упр. 8
Выпишите из текста № 1 и переведите пять предложений, в которых употреблен инфинитив. Подчеркните его.

Упр. 9
Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на -ing- формы.
1.    Sixteen-year-old Peter Stone went free yesterday after admitting killing his father with a home-made knife.
2.    In 1987, two academics published a study showing that 23 innocent people had been executed in the USA.
3.    Beheading is used in the East as well as in some European countries.
4.    Many cities have started training programs to make police take domestic-violence calls more sensitively - and seriously.
5.    Following a conviction, the murderer was sent to a prison for a lifetime.
6.    This judge is conducting the trial in another way than the previous one.

Упр. 10
Выпишите из текста № 1 и переведите на русский язык предложения на каждый из следующих видов придаточных:
-    условия (1);
-    определительные (2);
-    причины (1).
Подчеркните придаточные предложения, укажите их вид. III. Лексические упражнения

Упр. 11
Выпишите из текста № 1 и переведите на русский язык:
а)    пять существительных, образованных с помощью суффиксов - tion, - ment, - ant, - ег.
б)    пять наречий с суффиксом - 1у.

Упр. 12
Образуйте существительные от следующих глаголов путем конверсии, дайте перевод существительного и глагола:
to command    to order    to deal
to murder    to force    to trial
to rape    to pay    to damage
Выпишите из текста словосочетания с этими лексическими единицами и укажите к какой части речи они принадлежат.

Упр. 13
Переведите текст № 2 письменно.

Text № 2
Measurement of Crime
Estimating the amount of crime actually committed has troubled criminologists for many years; the figures for recorded crime do not give an accurate picture because they are influenced by variable factors such as the willingness of victims to report crimes. It is widely believed that only a small fraction of the crime actually committed is reported to authorities.
The public's view of the frequency and gravity of crime may be seriously distorted, as the media tend to concentrate on serious or sensational crimes and often fail to give a full and accurate picture of what has happened.
A more detached view may be provided by detailed statistics of crime compiled and published by a department of government in every country. For instance, the Federal Bureau of Investigation publishes an annual report, which (among other things) gives an account of the trends in different types of crime.
Another factor that can have a striking effect on the apparent statistical incidence of a particular kind of crime is a change in the willingness of victims of the crime to report it to the police. It is believed by most criminologists that the crime reported to the police amounts to only a small proportion of the crime actually committed. Estimates of the number of unreported crimes vary, but in some cases the reported crimes may constitute less than 10 percent of those actually committed.