Английский язык контрольная работа. Log in



Вариант № 1.

I. Прочитайте и переведите следующий текст.


1. The American economy is a dynamic, free-market system that is constantly developing out of the choices and decisions made by millions of citizens who play multiple, often overlapping roles of consumers, producers, investors and voters. The United States is generally believed to be a mixed economy, which is to say that even though the great majority of productive resources are privately owned, the federal government does play an important role in the market place.
2. The 'New Deal' programs of the 1930s brought the greatest expansion of the government role. New laws were passed regulating many economic activities - from sales of stocks to the right of workers to form unions. Moreover, the government began to provide workers with a measure of economic security in their old age. The Social Security program, enacted in 1936, still ensures that retired people have a regular income each month, and has been expanded to help them meet their medical costs.
3. But the pendulum has also swung the other way. In the 1970s and 1980s, with taxes steadily rising and the US economy standing, new national leaders were determined to cut government spending and levels of taxation, and in other ways to reduce government influence over the private sector. Their goal was to stimulate the private sector initiative and investment which is the engine that drives free-market economies.
4. Once a nation of farmers, the United States was chanted dramatically by successful adaptation of the machinery and production processes of the Industrial Revolution.
5. Beginning in 1870 and lasting for around a century, the United States became the world's manufacturing power-house leading the world in the production of steel, automobiles and other products. Since the 1960s, another transformation has been taking place, as new service-based and information-processing industries gradu¬ally replace some of the old branches of the traditional industrial base. By the 1990s, advances made in such fields as chemistry, electronics and biotechnology were producing goods and services ranging from semicon¬ductor circuits to laser surgery. Similarly, new farming technology has transformed the American agricultural sector, allowing more food and fiber to be produced by a constantly dwindling number of farmers.

II. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих русских слов и словосочетаний:

1) динамичная система свободного рынка; 2) потребители; 3) производители; 4) вкладчики; 5) избира¬тели; 6) производственные услуги; 7) расширение роли правительства; 8) принять законы; 9) экономиче¬ская деятельность; 10) продажа акций; 11) программа социального обеспечения; 12) пенсионеры; 13) сократить расходы правительства; 14) уровень налогообложения; 15) частный сектор; 16) осваивание механизмов и производственных процессов; 17) отрасли промышленности, предоставляющие новые ус¬луги и обработку информации; 18) достичь прогресса, продвижения; 19) интегральные схемы на полу¬проводниках; 20) лазерная хирургия.

III. Выпишите из первого абзаца текста одно предложение с причастием прошедшего времени {Participle II) в функции определения, подчеркните.

IV. Выпишите из пятого абзаца текста одно предложение с герундием.

V. Выпишите из третьего абзаца контрольного текста для перевода одно предложение с независимым причастным оборотом.

VI. Выпишите из первого абзаца текста одно предложение с субъектным инфинитивным обо¬ротом.

VII. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:
1. What is the American economy like?
2. What did the New Deal programs bring to the country?
3. What does the Social Security program ensure?
4. What was the US government goal in the 1970s and 1980s and why?
5. By what was the USA changed from a nation of farmers into an industrial country?