КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ
КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ №1 (I семестр)
Прочитайте и переведите текст устно.
The work which people undertake provides them with money. People buy essential commodities with money. All values in the economic system are measured in terms of money. Our goods and services are sold for money, and that money is in its turn exchanged for other goods and services. Coins are adequate for small transactions, while paper notes are used for general business. Originally, a valuable Metal (gold, silver or copper) served as a constant store of value, and even today the American dollar is technically 'backed' by, the store of gold which the US government maintains. Because gold has been universally regarded as a very valuable metal, national currencies were for many, years judged in terms of the so called "gold standard" `. Nowadays national currencies are considered to be as strong as the national economies which support them.
Valuable metal has generally been replaced by pa¬per notes. These notes are issued by government and authorized banks, and are known as 'legal tender'. Other arrangements such as cheques arid money orders are not legal tender. They perform the function of substitute money and are known as `instruments of credit'. Credit is offered only when creditors believe that they have a good chance of obtaining legal tender when they present such instruments at a bank or other authorized institu¬tions. If a man's assets are known to be considerable, then his credit will be good. If his assets are in doubt, then it may be difficult for him to obtain large sums of credit or even to pay for goods with a cheque.
The value of money is basically its value as a me¬dium of exchange or as economists put it, its 'purchas¬ing power'. This purchasing power is dependent on sup¬ply and demand. The demand of money is reckonable as the quantity needed to effect business transactions. The demand for money is related to the rapidity with which the business is done. The. supply of money is the actual amount in notes and coins available for business purposes. If too much money is available, its value decreases. This condition is known as 'inflation'.
FUNCTIONS OF MONEY
People accept money in exchange for goods and services. But the role of money depends on the state of development of an economy. Money has become an essential element of economies based on the division of labour, in which individuals have specialized in certain activities and enterprises have focused on manufactur¬ing specific goods and rendering specific services. In order to make transactions as simple and efficient as possible, the introduction of a generally accepted me¬dium of exchange suggested itself.
Money perform the function of a medium of exchange or means of payment with goods being exchanged for money and money for goods. At the same time it also acts as a unit of account.
Money is a store of value, as part of an individual's income may be set aside for future consumption.
These three functions of money - medium of exchange, unit of account and store of value - can only be fulfilled if there is great confidence in its stability of value. Safe¬guarding monetary stability is the primacy task of the central banks all over the world. Moreover, the central bank has the function of regulating the money supply in order to guarantee a smooth functioning of the mone¬tary system.
Найдите английским словам русские эквиваленты
11. gold standard
12. valuable metal
13. paper notes
14. legal tender
16. money order
19. purchasing power
22. inflation a-валюта
k-законное платежное средство
Напишите следующие предложения в отрицательной форме.
Например: 1 предложение выполнено для Вас.
1. The purchasing power of money, depends ( doesn’t depend) upon supply and demand.
2. Bank serves as a reservoir of loanable money.
3. Banks have developed greatly from their original position as places of security for valuables
4. Today banks are service industries which handle large sums of money On current and deposit account.
5. The whole banking system is based on simple acts of trust between all concerned. Without this trust modern banking would be impossible.
Прочитайте I абзац, выпишите фразы с глаголом « to be » и определите время и функцию глагола.
Например: Are measured – Pr Simple Passive, вспомогательный глагол.
Напишите сравнительную и превосходную степени следующих прилагательных и наречий английского языка из контрольной работы .
Составьте предложения на английском языке для контрольной работы , включив из текста.
To provide somebody with money - обеспечить кого-то деньгами
To sell for money - продавать за деньги
Constant store of value - постоянный запас ценностей
To be regarded - считаться
Forgery - подделка, фальшивые деньги
Division of labour – разделение труда
Efficient - действительный
Medium=means - средство
Consumption - потребление
Consumer - потребитель
To safeguard= to ensure – обеспечить
Smooth – ровный, плавный
Ответьте на следующие вопросы по тексту:
1 What provides people with money?
2 Are coins adequate for small transactions?
3 What condition is known as "inflation”?
4. What is the most important function of money?
5. What does the role of money depend on?
6. What are the three functions of money?
7. What is the primary task of central banks all over the world?
Переведите последний абзац текста и напишите функции, которые выполняют деньги.
Напишите правильные (Т) неправильные (F) следующие предложения из текста
Например: The work which people undertake provides them with money. (Т )
1. The value of money isn’t basically its value.
2. Cheques and money orders are not legal fender.
3. People accept money in exchange for money.
4. Money performs the function of a medium of exchange.
5. The central bank has the function of regulating the money supply.
6. Money hasn’t become an essential element of economies based on the division of labour.
7. Valuable metal hasn’t been replaced by paper notes.