Заказ контрольных работ по английскому языку - Контрольная работа по английскому языку.
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Контрольная работа по английскому языку.


Контрольная работа по английскому языку.


ВАРИАНТ контрольной рабты по английскому языку № 3

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ.

I. В КОНТРОЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЕ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык. В разделе (б) обра¬тите внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций. 
а) 1. The reactor is fast becoming a major source of heat and electricity.
2. Scientists nave found ways of measuring the sizes and posi¬tions of bodies in the Universe.
6) 1. Elements are transformed into other elements both by man and by nature.
2. The launching of Sputnik 1 was followed by many achievements in science and engineering.

II. В КОНТРОЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЕ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните Participle I и Patriciple II и установите функции каждого из них, т.е. укажите, является ли оно определени-ем, обстоятельством или частью глагола-сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. These reactions convert hydrogen into helium, giving off a great amount of light and heat.
2. The formula E= mc2 deduced by Einstein is perhaps the most well-known equation in the world.
3. Soils containing too much sand or clay are of less value in agriculture.
4. Plastics articles are often difficult to repair if broken.

III. В КОНТРОЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЕ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквиваленты. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. Laser light can be used to transmit power of various types.
2. The application of digital (цифровой) computers should include all forms of auto-matic control in science and industry.
3. These new materials had to withstand much higher temperatures than metals.
4. Ethylene gas may be obtained by cracking petroleum.

IV. В КОНТРОЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЕ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ прочтите и устно переведите с 1-го по 3-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 2-й и 3-й абзацы. 
Пояснения к тексту
1. Meitner [] - Майтнер
2. doctorate [ ] - докторская степень
3. then available - доступные в то время
4. Illustrious-[ ] - прославленный, известный
5. productive - плодотворный

USE MEITNER1 (1878-1968)

1. In 1938, an Austrian physicist named Lise Meitner announced the splitting of the atom in the laboratory. That announcement confirmed once again the beginning of the Atomic Age. At that time Lise Meitner was one of the few persons in the world who h.-ad a thorough understanding of atomic energy and the uses which could be made of this great power.
2. Lise Meitner, the daughter of a lawyer, was born in Vienna on the 17th of November 1Б78. She grew interested in science when she read of the Curies' discovery of radium. The example of Marie 'Curie showed that a woman was able to achieve something in science. Lise Meitner became the first woman in the history of the. Univer¬sity of Vienna who earned her doctorate2 in physics.
3.In 1906 she went to the University of Berlin to continue her studies by attending the theoretical lectures of Max Planck and by doing experimental work. There she began her research in the new field of radioactivity. She focused her attention on the behaviour of beta radiation from radioactive elements, experimenting with the primitive methods then available3 for measuring and analysing ra¬dioactivity. Meitner's work in the 1920s and early 1930s emphasized the physical aspects of radio-activity.
4. In 1938 she left Germany for Sweden. Lise Meitner declined to work on the development of the atom bomb remaining in Sweden throughout the war. She was concerned with the properties of new radioactive isotopes, produced by the cyclotron. Her career was illustrious and productive (she published more that 135 scienti¬fic papers), but throughout her life she remained a shy person, with a deep interest in music. Her devotion to science had been total. She never married. In I960 she moved to Cambridge, England, where she died in 1968.
V. Прочтите 4-й абзац текста и вопрос к нему. Из приведенных вариантов ответа укажите номер предложения, содержащего правильный ответ на постав-ленный вопрос:
Why can we say that Meitner's career was illustrious and productive?
1....because she was concerned with the study of thermal conduc¬tivity in non-homogeneous bodies.
2. ...because she was measuring and analysing radioactivity.
3. ...because she published more than 135 scientific papers.

ВАРИАНТ 4
I. В КОНТРОЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЕ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них гла-гол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык. В разделе (б) обра¬тите внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций. 
а) 1. Quantum mechanics has greatly influenced the nuclear theory.
2. The problem of the structure of matter is constantly occu¬pying the minds of many scientists.
б) 1.Today many polymeric materials are produced on a massive scale.
2. Many compounds can be decomposed when they are acted upon by different forms of energy.
II. В КОНТРОЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЕ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т.е. укажите, является ли оно определе-нием, обстоятельством или частью глагола-сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. Natural rubber is a thermoplastic material that becomes soft when heated and hard when cooled.
2. Matter composed of any chemical combination of elements is called a com-pound.
3. The smallest particle having all the characteristics of an element is called an atom.
4. While bombarding the upper layers of the atmosphere, cosmic rays reach the surface of the earth.
III. В КОНТРОЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЕ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ перепишите следующие предложения: подчеркните в каждом иэ них мо-дальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. Heat can be divided into three different types.
2. A great number of plastics should find their applications in the electrical industry.
3. Chemical means had to be used for the separation of compounds into their elements.
4. The existence of an X-ray laser in the future may be possible.
IV. В КОНТРОЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЕ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ прочтите и устно переведите с 1-го по 3-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 2-й и 3-й абзацы.
Пояснения к тексту
1. Raman [ra: man] - Раман
2. pre-eminent - выдающийся, превосходящий других
3. the Civil Service - государственная служба
4. to .appoint to a position - назначить на должность
5. to testify to - свидетельствовать о ...
6. to occupy the chair - возглавлять кафедру, заведовать кафедрой
7. brought - зд.: привлек
8. to emerge -зд.: проявить себя

CH.V.RAMAN1 (1388-1970)
1. Raman was an Indian physicist, pre-eminent2 in molecular spectroscopy and acoustics. He created the Indian Academy of Sciences in 1934 arid was its president until his death in 1970. He was justly considered as the father of Indian science and the Indian Government honoured him with the first of its National Pro¬fessorships. In 1957 he became an International Lenin Peace Prize Winner.
2. The son of a teacher arid lecturer, Raman entered the College in Madras in 1903 and achieved the highest distinctions in the examinations for scientific degrees. As sci-entific research was at this time almost completely neglected in India, he then entered the Civil Service3 and was appointed to a position4. In the Finance Department in 1907. He retained this employment for -ten years, mostly in Calcutta. When he was eighteen years old he published his first original optical research in the "Philosophical Magazine". He continued scientific work In his spare time: some thirty papers-testified to5 his ability arid energy and helped to make his name familiar to scientists in Europe and America.
3. In 1917 Raman was offered the professorship of physics at the Calcutta Univer-sity. He occupied the chair6 from 1917 to 1933.Raman brought7 to Calcutta many talented young Indians to undertake research into optical phenomena, acoustics and other branches of physics.
4. During the years in Calcutta Raman emerged8 as a truly in¬ternational figure. In 1930 he was awarded the Nobel Prise in Physics (for his work on the scattering of light and for the dis¬covery of the effect named after him). Raman was honoured by uni¬versities and scientific Institutions in Russia, Europe and Ameri¬ca as well as in his own country.
V. Прочтите 4-й абзац текста и вопрос к нему. Из приведенных вариантов ответа укажите номер предложения, содержащего правильный ответ на поставленный вопрос:
Why was Raman honoured by many universities and scientific institutions of different countries?
1. ...because he was awarded the Nobel Prize.
2. ...because he brought to Calcutta many young talented Indians.
3. ...because of his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of an effect named after him.

ВАРИАНТ 5
I. В КОНТРОЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЕ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и оределите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык. В разделе (б) обра¬тите внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций. 
а) 1. Astronomers have measured the exact lenght of the day.
2. Astronomers find that the day is Increasing by 0.002 seconds each century.
б) 1. The chemical properties of an element are determined by the orbiting' elec-trons.
2. As a rule one great discovery is generally followed by numerous others.
II. В КОНТРОЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЕ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них. т.е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью глагола-сказуемого, Переведите предложения на русский язык. 
1. The cloud chamber (камера Вильсона) is one of the devices used to detect the presence of radioactivity.
2. Matter consists of one or a number of basic elements occurring in nature.
3. One can use several modern devices while detecting and measuring radioactivity.
4. When heated to a certain temperature, this alloy increases -in volume.
III. В КОНТРОЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЕ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них мо-дальный глагол или его эквивалент; предложения переведите.
1. We can think of heat as a special form of kinetic energy.
2. A computer should solve complicated problems many millions of times faster than a mathematician.
3. New types of plastics had to be obtained for space technology.
4. To measure the vast distances between different planets scientists have to use special instruments.
IV. В КОНТРОЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЕ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ пПрочтите и устно переведите с 1-го по 3-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 2-й и 3-й абзацы.
Пояснения к тексту
1. Powell [ ] - Пауэлл
2. particle physics - физика элементарных частиц
3. Pugwush Conferences - Пагуошские конференции
4. were determined - были полны решимости
5. won a scholarship - получил (по конкурсу) стипендию
6. position - должность
7. sub-nuclear particle - субъядерная частица

C.F.POWKLL1 (1903-1969)
1. Powell was a prominent English scientist noted for his tech¬niques and discoveries in particle physics2. He was also deeply concerned with problems relating to the social responsibility of scientists. Powell was a leafier in the World Federation of Scien¬tific workers in the mid-1950s and was a founder of the Pugwush Conferences3 on Science and World Affairs in 1957. As a public man and In his published articles Powell stressed the perils of de¬structive weapons and the need for international cooperation.
2. Powell was born in December 1903 in England. His parents were poor and they were determined4 to give their children a good education to increase their opportunities for a better life. In 1921 Powell won a scholarship5 one of the colleges at Cambridge which he graduated in 1925 with first-class honours in science. He started his scientific career at the Cavendish laboratory headed by Ernest Rutherford. After gaining his scientific degree at Cam¬bridge in 1928 Powell accepted a position6 at the new Physics la¬boratory in the University of Bristol. Powell spent the rest of his career there advancing to professor in 1948 and director of the laboratory in 1964.
3. In 1947 Powell’s Bristol group identified a new particle in the cosmic radiation. Powell and other two scientists discovered the - meson and demonstrated that this sub-nuclear particle7 was produced directly in nuclear reactions and rapidly decayed in flight, producing the -meson. The discovery solved a complicated scientific problem and helped open a new era of particle physics.
4. Powell continued to develop and apply the photographic method of Bristol. His laboratory became the source of new experimental discoveries in meson physics and an international traininng centre for physicists of many countries. In 1950 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for his development of the photographic method and his meson discoveries.
V. Прочтите 4-й абзац текста и вопрос к нему. Из приведенных вариантов ответа укажите номер предложения, содержащего правильный ответ на поставленный вопрос:
For what discovery was Powell awarded the Nobel Prise?
1. ... for the role he played in the establishment of the European Centre for Nuclear Research.
2. ...for his development of the photographic method and his meson discoveries.
3. ...for a new technique for detecting high-energy particles.

КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 3
Чтобы правильно выполнить задание N 3, необходимо усвоить сле¬дующие разделы курса английского языка по рекомендованному учебнику:
1. Грамматические функции и значения слов that, one, it.
2. Пассивный залог (The Passive Voice) видо-временных форм In¬definite, Continu-ous, Perfect.
3. Функции глаголов to be, to have, to do.
4. Простые неличные формы глагола. Инфинитив в функции а) под¬лежащего, б) составной части сказуемого, в) определения, г) обсто¬ятельства цели.
5. Бессоюзное подчинение в определительных и дополнительных придаточных предложениях.
Используйте образцы выполнения упражнений.

ОБРАЗЕЦ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ  КОНТРОЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ №1 (К УПР.1)
Present Perfect Passive
The main question has already Главный вопрос уже обсудили.
been discussed.
Present Indefinite Passive
His scientific work is much О его научной работе много
spoken about. говорят.

ОБРАЗЕЦ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ КОНТРОЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ №2 (К УПР. II)
1. It is necessary to use the Необходимо использовать в
latest means of control in мышленности новейшие средства
industry. контроля.
2. One should agree that that Следует согласиться, что тот
experiment was of great impor- эксперимент имел большое значе-
tance for our research, ние для нашего исследования.
3. It is hydrogen that will be Именно водород будет основным
the main source of energy in источником энергии в автомобиле
the car of the future, будущего.

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ: КАК ЕЕ ПРАВИЛЬНО СДЕЛАТЬ. 
1. What is the name of the book Как называется книга, которую ты
you are reading? читаешь?
2. The region we must explore Район, который мы должны иссле-
possesses great natural довать, обладает огромными при-
wealth. родными ресурсами.

ВАРИАНТ 1
I. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола-сказуемого (см. образец). Пе¬реведите предложения на русский язык.
1. When much material had been looked through and some problems had been. solved, the article was published.
2. Electric cars will be widely used In future.
3. Today plastics are being applied for car bodies (корпус автомо¬биля).
4. This lecturer is listened to with great interest.
II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения слов it, that, one.
1. It is proved that light needs time to travel any distance.
2. One must take part in scientific work.
3. Specialists consider that in future city transport will reject gasoline.
III. Перепищите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения глаголов to be, to have, to do.
1. You have to come to the language laboratory of the Institute to work at your pronunciation.
2. This material does not possess elastic properties.
3. Scientists had to create new materials for industry.
4. The exam was to start in the morning.
IV. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, об-ращая внимание на бессоюзное подчинение.
1. We know electricity produces heat.
2. The new materials the Russian chemists developed were used in space technology.
V. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива.
1. It is necessary for a Russian specialist to know a foreign language.
2. The Russian scientists were the first to construct and launch the space rocket.
3. Our idea was to design a new device for automatic control.
4. To increase the productivity of labour one must use the methods we have just de-scribed.
VI. Прочтите и устно переведите с 1-го по 3-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 1-й и 2-й абзацы.
Пояснения к тексту
1. leap - прыжок
2. cushion - подушка
3. collaboration - сотрудничество
4. recoup - компенсировать
5. magnetic suspension train - поезд на магнитной подвеске

THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY TRANSPORT
1. It has been a long time since train velocities first surpassed the 100 km per hour limit and they are now approaching 200 km per hour and even higher velocities in some countries. Is it pos¬sible to increase the speed with the help of the traditional wheel at the present stage in the development of transport facilities? Scientists and engineers in various countries have come to the conclusion that a new leap in velocity is possible only if the wheel is replaced with an air ,or magnetic cushion2
2. In Russia the Russian Electrical Locomotive Engineering Re¬search Institute is the leader in the development of high-speed ground transport. In collaboration3 with many other Russian rese¬arch centres, it is carrying out an extensive programme on high-speed ground transport. The advantages of high-speed ground trans¬port to be used in futuie are obvious. At present air and road transport burns three-fourths of all produced fuels, and the com¬bustion process, naturally, affects the earth's ecology.
3. The future trains must be ecologically clean and noiseless. It has been estimated that the cost of high-speed ground transport will be recouped three times faster than with the railways.
4. The high-speed ground-transport will connect cities and in¬dustrial centres to air-ports. The first magnetic suspension train is not yet in operation, but its principle has found a way into technology..
VII. Прочтите 4-й абзац текста и вопрос к нему. Из приведенных вариантов ответа укажите номер предложения, содержащего правильный ответ на поставленный вопрос:
What kind of transport will connect industrial cities to airports?
1. electric trains
2. high-speed ground - transport
3. magnetic suspension trains

ВАРИАНТ 2
I. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола-сказуемого (см. образец). Пе¬реведите пред-ложения на русский язык.
1. When much had been done In the study of ecology by our institute it became an important scientific centre.
2. A curriculum of the new type of secondary school is offered by the Ministry of Education.
3. The research of planets will be developed with the help of cosmic apparatus.
4. This material is unaffected by solar radiation.
II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения слов it, that, one,
1. It is necessary to find new sources of cheap energy.
2. It was Einstein who cane to the conclusion that the electromag¬netic field is influenced by the gravitational field.
3. This metro station was open&d lest year. and that one will be put into operation in two year.
III. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык,об¬ращая внима-ние на разные значения глаголов to be, to have, to do.
1. Man had to learn to obtain electric power directly from the Sun.
2. At present most of the industrial enterprises have their own electric power sta-tions-
3. Specialists do not use solar cells in industry as they are too expensive.
4. The engineers ere to study the problem of using cosmic rays.
IV. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык обращая внимание на бессоюзное подчинение.
1. The methods we have just described are very effective.
2. The Instruments our plant produces help to automate production processes.
V. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, об-ращая внимание за функцию инфинитива.
1. The teacher told her students to learn the poem by heart.
2. Russia was the first country t'o send man into space.
3. To translate a sentence is to discover its meaning-
4. To answer this question we studied a great deal of publications on the problem.
VI. Прочтите и устно переведите с 1-го по 3-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 2-й и 3-й абзацы.
Пояснения к тексту
1. magneto-heat engine - магнитно-тепловой двигатель
2. inexhaustible - неисчерпаемый, неистощимый

SUN-DRIVEN ENGINE
1. It is common knowledge that certain metals and their alloys are attracted by a magnet. After heating, this property vanishes; it Is restored after cooling down. A new magneto-heat engine works on this principle. This invention relates to devices which transform thermal power, for instance, the power of the sun rays. into a me¬chanical power of rotation.
2. We know solar power is inexhaustible2 and its use does not harm the environment. That's why such importance is attached to the devices which make it possible to apply the idea of direct use of solar power, for arisfox-ming 1L into mechanical forms of power .The de¬velopment of an engine directly driven by a heat source such as so¬lar power, makes it possible to simplify and make power generation corsiderably cheaper, in comparison to the existing thermal engines we use .today.
3. The rotor of the new engine is made of an alloy that loses its magnetic properties already at 100°C.If the rotor is heated on one side. the cold side of the rotor will turn toward the magnet. Since heating continues, the rotor goes on rotating, too. Thus so-lar power can be used as a source of heat in this case. The magneto-heat engine can drive pumps in waterless districts, can also be widely used for watering greenery in cities and settlements.
4. By using thermomagnetic alloys it is possible to develop a lot of automatic devices, for example, solar clocks, thermometers etc. Mention should be made that these devices can withstand extreme temperatures. To organize the production of the necessary alloys is simple as there is no. need for rare materials or complex technology.
VII. Прочтите 4-й абзац текста и вопрос к нему. Из приведенных вариантов ответа укажите номер предложения, содержащего правильный ответ на поставленный вопрос:
Why are thermomagnetic alloys used in the production of riutoniatic devices?
1. ... they resist to acids.
2. ... they resist to heat.
3. ... they resist to pressure.

ВАРИАНТ З
I. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола-сказуемого (см.образец). Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. The radar has been used for the automatic control of ground transport.
2. Today plastics are being widely used instead of metals.
3. The construction of the dam has been completed this month.
4. The alloys were experimented upon in our lab.
II. Перепишите следуювде предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на рваные значения слов it, that, one.
1. It is the number of electrons within the atom that determines the properties of a substance.
2. The territory of Moscow is larger than that of London.
3. In London one must get used to the left-side traffic.
III. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения глаголов to be, to have, to do.
1. Some substances do not conduct heat.
2. Our plant is to increase the output of consumer goods.
3. йооп our industry will have new and cheap sources of energy.
4. These computers will have to perform millions of operations per second.
IV. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, об-ращая внимание на бессоюзное подчинение.
1. The hostel our .students live in is situated not far- from the metro station.
2. l think he has made a mistake in his calculations.
V. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, об-ращая внимание на функцию инфинитива в предложении.
1. They promised to supply us with the necessary equipment.
2. The purpose of this book is to describe certain properties of metals.
3. The experiment to be carried out is of great importance for our research.
4. To convert chemical energy into electrical energy we must use an electrical cell.
VI. Прочтите и устно переведите с 1-го по 4-й и абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 2 и 3-й абзацы.

Пояснения к тексту
1. the setting of grinding wheels - активная часть шлифовальных кругов
2. stone sawing . - распиловка камней •
3. wire drawing - волочение проволоки
4. to meet needs - удовлетворять потребности
5. It takes... - требуется...
6. kimberlifce pipe - кимберлитовая трубка
(алмазоносная залежь)

MAN-MADE DIAMONDS
1. The new industries of today are in great need of superhard materials, diamonds in particular. One could even say that the le¬vel of the technical develooment of a country is largely determined by the number of diamonds used for borehole drilling, for the ma¬chining of sliper-hard and refrctctory materials,and for the setting of grinding wheels/, stone sawing2, wire drawing3, etc-
2. There are not enough natural diamonds to meet all these needs. Therefore, people have learned to manufacture artificial ones. Russian scientists discovered how to synthesize diamonds.
3. A diamond, just like common graphite, is almost pure carbon. Thus, it turns out that graphite and diamond are two forms of the-same substance. Their properties differ, however. Graphite is a black, non-transparent and light-weight substance and a good con¬ductor of electricity, whereas a diamond is colourless, transparent. extremely hard and a non-conductor. This is explained by the difference in the structures of their crystals. It takes " a very high pressure (tens of thousands of atmospheres) and a high tempe¬rature to compress the wayward carbon atoms Into a diamond. Russian scientists were among the first to achieve this. They worked out the diamond production processes, designed the necessary equipment and handed over the results of their work to a number of research organizations and industrial enterprises which are introducing synthetic diamonds into the country's national economy on a wide scale.
4: Graphite or any other carbonaceous substance is placed in a special chamber where the necessary pressure and temperature are built up. The reaction usually takes a few minutes, but may vary from a few seconds to a few hours. The whole mass is then cooled to room temperature under & very high pressure.
5. Artificial diamonds are about 50-66 per cent cheaper. . Tests revealed that abrasive tools using artificial diamonds are stronger than those using natural ones. Man-made diamonds are not substitu¬tes - they are exactly like the diamonds found bylgeologists in kimberlite pipes 6.
VII. Прочтите 5-й абзац текста и вопрос к нему. Из приведенных вариантов ответа укажите номер предложения, содержащего правильный ответ на поставленный вопрос:
What abrasive tools are stronger?
1. ... using natural diamonds,
2. ... using man-made diamonds.
3. ... using other abrasive materials.

ВАРИАНТ 4
I. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола-сказуемого (см.образец). Пе¬реведите предложения на русский язык.
1. The automatic equipment is being installed in our shop.
2. Radioactive isotopes have been made in nuclear reactor.
3. The construction of this house will be completed in a month.
4. The engineer was asked about the new technology used at the plant.
II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения слов it, that, one.
1. The successes in chemistry made it possible to obtain a lot of new materials.
2. One must apply the material that can be machined easily.
3. It is the energy of falling water that is used to drive turbines.
III. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, помня о разных значениях глаголов to be, to have, to do.
1. The operators dealing with radioisotopes must have protective suits.
2. The engineers are to study the problem of using solar energy.
3. The chemical industry is one of the leading branches of our national economy.
4. Russian fabrics have acquired good reputation abroad.
IV. Перепищите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, об-ращая внимание на бессоюзное подчинение.
1. I think the drawing will be ready by tomorrow.
2. Every substance a man comes in contact with consists of molecules.
V. Перепищите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива в предложении.
1. То design new buildings is the work of an architect.
2. To measure volumes we must know the dimensions of a body.
3. Our plant was the first to install the automatic equipment.
4. Architects have built houses to be heated by solar radiation.
VI. Прочтите и устно переведите с английского  1-го по 5-й и абзацы текста. Перепищите и письменно переведите 2-й, 3-й и 4-й абзацы.
Пояснения к тексту
1. go a long way towards easing the shortage - долгое время смягчать проблему дефицита энергии
2. molten interior - расплавленная область земли
3. geothermal reservoir - геотермальный источник
4. to a smaller extent - в меньшей степени
5. rock fracture - разломы скальных пород
6. field - 1) участок; 2) область; 3) (геол.) месторождение
7. flashes into... мгновенно превращается...
8. exploration - 1) исследование; 2) изыскательские работы, пробная эксплуатация

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY. THE POWER UNDER OUR FEET
1. It would be wonderful if some conjurer could wave his magic wand and give us all the energy we need. This, of course, isn't going to happen. But there is a vast energy source within our reach right now that can go a long way towards easing the shortage: geothermal heat.
2. The deep regions of the earth are extremely hot, reaching temperatures in the molten interior2 of 2000°F or more. In most parts of the world, temperature Increases gradually with depth -roughly 1.8°F for every 100 feet. Huge local hot spots exist sufficiently close to the surface to be of practical value. These hot spots, with temperatures of about 150°to 750йF, are known as geothermal reservoirs3.
3 The energy in geothermal reservoirs consists of heat stored . in rock and, to a smaller extent4, in water or steam confined under pressure in rock fractures •f To re-cover the energy, wells are drilled through the impermeable layers above the reservoir and the trapped water and steam rush to the surface.
4. Experts estimate that only five to ten per cent of all geothermal reservoirs contain dry steam. More conanon are wet steam fields tiled with water superheated from 350°to POO^F. When the pressure is relieved by drilling into the field, the superheated water flashes into 7 a mixture of 20 per cent steam and the rest hot water.
5. Power generating stations utilizing wet steam are already in operation in countries including Italy, Iceland, New Zealand,Japan and Russia. Much of the exploration8 and research is being carried out in southern California, one of the world's largest known reser¬voir of geothermal power. The bulk of the research being carried out today is aimed at optimizing the production of energy from steam and hot water fields. The environmental and pollution problems of geothermal steam and water utilisation are much simpler to control than those created by the recovery and use of coal, oil or nuclear power.
VII. Прочтите 5-й абзац текста и вопрос к нему. Из приведенных вариантов ответа укажите номер предложения, содержащего правильный ответ на поставленный вопрос:
What environmental problems are much easi&r to control? 1. ... created by the use of nuclear power. Ј. ... created by the use of geothermal energy-3. ...created by the utilization of coal and oil.

ВАРИАНТ 5
I. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола-сказуемого (см.образец). Пе¬реведите предложения на русский язык.
1. Many 16-storey houses with all modern conveniences are being built in this part of Moscow.
2. The sputniks are used for the research of magnetic fields and cosmic rays-
3. The properties of materials are affected by solar radiation.
4. Scientific and engineering progress opens up wide. prospects before man.
II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык. обращая внимание на разные значения слов it, that, one.
1. It is necessary to obtain accurate data on the possibility of living and working in space.
2. The peoples know that their joint efforts can secure pease in the whole world.
3. We had to find new methods of investigation because the old ones were unsatisfactory.
III. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обра-щая внимание на разные значения глаголов to be, to have, to do.
1. A programme for the construction of new types of spaceships is to be carried out this year.
2. We do not understand the work of this complex device.
3. We had to change the design of this machine.
4. The speed of electrons is almost the same as that of light.
IV. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обра-щая внимание на бессоюзное подчинении.
1. We know radio and radar systems play a very important role at any airport.
2. The information science gets about other galaxies comes through radiotelescopes.
V. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функций инфинитива в предложении.
1. The Russian science was the first to make great contribution fco the development of space technology.
2. In order to make interplanetary flights in the future it is necessary to know factors affecting the human organism.
3. The main purpose of the computers is to solve complex problems quickly.
VI. Прочтите и устно переведите с 1-го по 5-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 2-й, 3-й и 4-й абзацы.
Пояснения к тексту
1. fundamental particle - элементарная частица
2. emergence - появление

OUTLINE OF RUSSIAN SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS
1. The Russian science has been concentrated lately on the most promising lundamental trends and fields, on increasing1 the practi¬cal effectiveness of research The physics of fundamental par¬ticles^ the physics of the atomic nucleus and solid state physios occupy an important place in modern science.
2. Russia has built powerful atomic electric stations and has designed new types of reactors which open up fine prospects in atomic power industry.The biggest proton accelerator in Russia has been launched in Serpukhov.Extensive work is now being carried out on designing nuclear engines to be used for transport. Much atten-tion is being given to the application of isotopes, radiation arid other results of nuclear research in medicine, industry arid agri¬culture.
3. The Russian scientists have developed large-scale commercial manufacture of artificial diamonds with properties which surpass those of natural diamonds. The finest crystallographic equipment has been developed making it possible to study the atomic struc¬ture of materials.
4. The emergence2 of Quantum electronics is one of the brightest events in the history of physics.Our scientists have suggested and developed the idea5 of basically new sources of electro-magnetic emission-quantum generators. At present, they are used in industry for cutting and welding metals, for high precision treatment of various materials including diamonds and ceramics.
5. The necessity to conduct extremely fast technical calcula¬tions, primarily in atomic technique» in aviation, rocketry arid cosmonautics has led to the development of fast-acting electronic computers. Computers and other technical means of control are widely used In such fields as economics, planning and management of production. One should remember that the wide use of computers signifies a further advance In industry.
VII. Прочтите 5-й абзац текста и вопрос к нему. Из приведенных вариантов ответа укажите номер предложения, содержащего правильный ответ на постав-ленный вопрос:
What has led to the development of fast-acting electronic computers?
1. ... the necessity to develop artificial diamonds.
2. ... the necessity to apply isotopes.
3. ... the necessity to carry out fast calculations.


English