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Контрольная работа по английскому языку




КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ (II семестр)
для студентов специальностей «Менеджмент
организаций», «Управление качеством»
I часть
РАБОТА С ТЕКСТОМ
Factory Location and Capacity
The decision to make a new product usually involves changing
equipment and altering layout of an existing factory, or constructing a new
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production facility. When deciding where to locate a plant or factory, a
company has to take into consideration a number of factors, including the
efficiency of the region’s infrastructure, including telecommunications, and
road and rail transport; its utilities – the supply of energy and so on; the
cost of land and construction; and local tax rates. Land usually becomes
cheaper the further you go from the city centre, but a company must make
sure that it will be able to find appropriate labour skills at a suitable price.
It also needs to determine the availability and cost of raw materials,
components and supplies, and the lead time to acquire them. The
company must also take into account the cost of transporting raw
materials and components from suppliers and subcontractors, and
shipping or distributing products to wholesalers’ warehouses, retailers, or
other plants in the network. Transport costs and time constraints make it
logical to produce close to the customer.
Manufacturing companies have to make difficult decisions concerning
the size of their production capacity. Having a large capacity enables a
firm to meet unexpected increases in demand. When there is strong
market growth and insufficient capacity you have to move fast: insufficient
capacity, leading to a long lead time and slow service, may cause
customers to go to other suppliers, and allow competitors to enter the
market. Furthermore, lost sales and lost market share tend to be
irreversible. On the other hand, occasional demand has to be balanced
against overcapacity, which might lead to under-utilizing the workforce,
which is clearly expensive, or make it necessary to reduce prices to
stimulate demand, or to produce additional products that are less
profitable.
Yet most companies budget for a certain capacity cushion – an
amount of capacity in excess of expected demand. It is also necessary to
plan for occasional downtime, when production stops because of
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equipment failures.
Capacity can also be affected by external considerations such as
government regulations concerning working hours, safety, pollution levels,
and so on, trade union agreements, and the capabilities of suppliers. There
are also internal considerations such as the training and motivation of the
personnel, the capabilities and reliability of the equipment, the control of
materials and quality, and the capabilities of the management.
Producing in large quantities allows a firm to take advantage of
quantity discounts in purchasing, and lowers the average fixed cost per
unit produced, as each succeeding unit absorbs part of the fixed costs,
giving economies of scale. The best operating level is the level of capacity
for which the average unit cost is at a minimum, after which there are
diseconomies of scale. There are also disadvantages to having large-scale
facilities. Finding staff becomes more difficult, and the logistics of material
flow becomes more complicated. Moreover, the working environment, and
consequently industrial relations, are frequently less good in large factories.
A plant’s ideal capacity is very likely not maximum capacity – e.g.
operating 24 hours a day, with three shifts of workers – as this may be
inefficient in terms of higher labour costs (shiftwork or overtime payments),
higher maintenance expenses, and so .
Упражнение 1.
Прочитайте и устно переведите весь текст.
Упражнение 2.
Ответьте письменно на вопросы.
1. What does the decision to make a new product usually involves?
2. What factors does a company have to take into consideration when it
decides where to locate its plant?
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3. Do transport costs and time constraints make it logical to produce close
to the customer?
4. What is the negative effect of having insufficient production capacity?
5. What external and internal considerations can affect capacity?
6. Why does producing in large quantities lower production costs?
7. There are no disadvantages to having large-scale facilities, are there?
8. What is a plant’s ideal capacity?
Упражнение 3 из контрольной работы по английскому языку
Соединив слова из левой и правой колонок, образуйте
словосочетания, все из которых встречаются в первом абзаце
текста. Переведите их на русский язык.
1. production a. transport
2. rail b. facility
3. tax c. skills
4. labour d. constraints
5. lead e. rates
6. transport f. time
7. time g. сosts
Упражнение 
Найдите в последующих абзацах текста английские эквиваленты
следующим словосочетаниям на русском языке.
1. ожидаемый спрос
2. постоянные издержки
3. государственное регулирование
4. доля на рынке
5. уровень загрязнения
6. рабочая обстановка
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7. движение материалов
8. случайный простой
9. соглашения с профсоюзами
10. поломка оборудования
Упражнение 5.
Составьте 5 предложений с английскими словосочетаниями из
предыдущего упражнения.
Упражнение 6.
Выпишите из предложений I, II, IV абзацев все модальные
глаголы с относящимися к ним инфинитивами. Переведите их
на русский язык.
Упражнение 7.
Определите, чем являются выделенные ing-формы в
следующих фрагментах текста (Причастие I или Герундий).
Назовите их функцию в предложении.
1. The decision ...usually involves changing equipment...
2. Manufacturing companies have to make ...
3. Having a large capacity enables a firm...
4. ... insufficient capacity, leading to a long lead time and slow
service, may cause customers to go to other suppliers...
5. Producing in large quantities allows a firm to take advantage of
quantity discounts in purchasing...
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Упражнение 8.
Выпишите из текста два примера употребления Причастия II в
составе страдательного залога (Passive Voice) и три примера
использования Причастия II в качестве определения.
Переведите их на русский язык.
Упражнение 9.
Подчеркните формы инфинитива в следующих предложениях.
Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. The decision to make a new product usually involves changing
equipment and altering layout of an existing factory, or constructing a
new production facility.
2. It also needs to determine the availability and cost of raw
materials, components and supplies, and the lead time to acquire
them.
3. Transport costs and time constraints make it logical to produce close to
the customer.
4. It is also necessary to plan for occasional downtime, when production
stops because of equipment failures.
Упражнение 10.
Письменно переведите IV и V абзацы. 

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