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Контрольная работа по английскому языку


Text № 1

Use of Non-police Negotiators in a Hostage Incident

While I'm on the topic of who should or shouldn't negotiate, I'd like to warn you about non-police negotiators. The SOARU points out that using "civilian" negotiators like members of the subject's family, friends, clergy, a mental health professional, or an attorney is a high-risk proposition. Since these people have generally not been trained in negotiation, they will probably, under the stress of the situation, revert to their usual way of talking with the subject. All negotiators have heard stories about family members who come to the scene and say, "Let me talk to him, he'll listen to me". When they get on the phone, some will call the subject a jerk; another will say, "Hang in there, Joey, we're all proud of you".
Clergymen, on the other hand, may get excessively moralistic or theological, while attorneys may have difficulty deciding which side they represent. Even mental health professionals with experience in crisis intervention may have little to offer if they have not had negotiation training. They are accustomed to people coming to them and asking for help, not resisting it. And, generally, they don't have the mental "set" to expect demands and to deal with lying or threats if those demands aren't met. After getting negotiation training, however, they can work well as consultants to the negotiation team.
Finally, if a non-police negotiator is being used and you decide to go tactical, that person may be reluctant (or may refuse) to participate in a tactical response and may alert the subject by changing or disrupting the negotiations. So, unless there are specific reasons to the contrary, negotiators should be drawn from our trained officers, with professional consultants to back them up if necessary.

Note: SOARU - Special Operations and Research Unit (at the FBI Academy)

I. Фонетические упражнения

Упр. 1
Выпишите из текста № 1 слова, в которых ударными являются долгие гласные / i: /, / u: /, / E: / и дифтонги / ei /, / ai / (по 5-7 слов на каждый звук). Подчеркните буквы или сочетания букв, передающие эти звуки.

Упр. 2
Запишите следующие слова в транскрипции,    прочтите их
negotiator    attorney    subject    theological
negotiation    proposition    scene    experience
should    revert    excessively    consultant

Прочитайте текст № 1 вслух.

II. Грамматические упражнения
Упр. 4
а)    Выпишите из текста № 1 пять предложений с модальными глаголами. Подчеркните модальные глаголы. Переведите эти предложения на русский язык.
б)    В следующих предложениях подчеркните модальные глаголы или их эквиваленты. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1.    Safety and control must be the prime considerations in the decision-making process.
2.    We are to differentiate terrorists from the wide range of criminal personalities.
3.    We have to find ways of breaking the vicious cycle of repetition of offending.

Упр. 5
а)    Выпишите из текста № 1 предложение с неопределенным местоимением some, переведите его;
б)    В данных ниже предложениях подчеркните неопределенные местоимения или их производные. Переведите эти предложения на русский язык.
1.    You should not let anyone else talk to the subject.
2.    Do not offer the subject anything.
3.    Do not allow any exchange of hostages.
4.    You should make every effort to avoid bargaining with the subject.
5.    Everything he says is valuable.

Упр. 6
а)    Выпишите из текста № 1 и переведите три предложения, в которых глагол-сказуемое стоит в Present Perfect;
б)    В данных предложениях подчеркните глаголы-сказуемые, определите их временную форму и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1.    Не stated that he had 'lost face'.
2.    He had been arrested three times.
3.    The subject has taken no hostages.

Упр. 7
Выпишите из текста № 1 и переведите пять предложений, сказуемые, которых употреблены в страдательном залоге. Подчеркните сказуемые.

Упр. 8
Выпишите из текста контрольной работы по английскому языку и переведите пять предложений, в которых употреблен инфинитив. Подчеркните его.

Упр. 9
Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на -ing- формы.
1.    Using "civilian" negotiators is a high-risk proposition.
2.    Attorneys may have difficulty deciding which side they represent.
3.    They have not had negotiation training.
4.    They are accustomed to people coming to them and asking for help.
5.    Usually they don't deal with lying or threats.
6.    They can work after getting negotiation training
7.    That person may alert the subject by changing or disrupting the negotiations.

Упр. 10
Выпишите из текста № 1 и переведите по одному предложению на каждый из следующих видов придаточных:
-    времени;
-    условия;
-    причины;
-    дополнительные;
-    определительные.
Подчеркните придаточные предложения, укажите их вид.

III. Лексические упражнения

Упр. 11
Выпишите из текста № 1 и переведите на русский язык:
а)    шесть производных имен существительных, образованных с помощью суффиксов -ion, -or, -er, -al, -ent;
б)    три наречия с суффиксом -1у.

Упр. 12
Образуйте глаголы от следующих существительных путем конверсии, дайте перевод и существительного, и глагола:

use    stress    experience    threat
point    phone        offer    work
hand    change       
    Выпишите из текста № 1 словосочетания с этими лексическими единицами и укажите, к какой части речи они принадлежат.

Упр. 13
Переведите текст № 2 письменно.

Text № 2
Options Available in a Hostage or Barricade Incident

First of all, when you have a hostage or barricade incident, you have about five response options available to you:
1.    You can contain, isolate, and negotiate. Most departments use this as a first response, and the success rate is very high. But I want to stress the need to isolate the subject so that he can only communicate with the negotiator. If he gets on the phone to the media, to friends, or to relatives, things can go downhill pretty quickly.
2.    You can contain, isolate, and simply demand surrender. This option is most feasible in a barricade situation where the subject has taken no hostages. Some departments will just wait the guy out.
3.    If "verbal tactics" don't work, you can use more forceful tactics to resolve the situation. Most departments first consider using chemical agents to force the subject out.
4.    Next, you could consider using a sniper to neutralize the hostage taker. Be aware, though, that hostage takers sometimes exchange clothes with victims, especially if they fear an assault by police.

5.    Finally, you can send in the special weapons and tactics team. This poses the highest risk not only for our guys but also for the hostages. If the hostages haven't been hurt and there are no immediate threats to them, negotiation is the safest option for all involved.

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