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Контрольная по английскому языку. Тольяттинский Государственный Университет.


Контрольная по английскому языку

ВАРИАНТ 3

Text № 1

Getting Offenders to Admit they are Wrong

Over the past five years, government reforms have improved the legal system of the United Kingdom. Restorative justice is an official initiative, which has been supported and encouraged to reduce crime and benefit victims.
The recently formed Youth Justice Board aims to promote the prevention of offences by children and young people. The board has called upon youth courts to reduce the number of short custodial sentences and, conscious of the need for an alternative to imprisonment for young offenders, a conference was convened on the topic.
Lord Chief Justice Woolf, the main speaker, indicated that there is an alternative to imprisonment for young people. It is the process of restorative justice, which involves the victims of crime, the community, which may be affected, and offenders.
He pointed out frustration experienced sometimes by victims. They often believe that the effect of criminal behavior on them personally has not been taken into account.
Lord Wolf observed, "We have to find ways of breaking the vicious cycle of repetition of offending, punishment, release, reoffending and punishment again. Restorative justice cannot be the sole answer to this problem but can assist."
With restorative justice an offender is encouraged to acknowledge the wrong which those who suffer from his or her criminal behavior have endured. A victim, ideally, is involved in the process but always voluntarily. Above all, the offender is encouraged to realize that someone, a real person, has been affected by the crime.
Restorative justice conference is a way of attempting to achieve this end. It includes where possible the families of both victim and offender to deal with the aftermath of the offence. Ideally, an offender is given an opportunity to become a member of law-abiding society and repay a moral debt to victims. Offenders can find it demanding when meeting face to face with their victims.


I.   Фонетические упражнения
Упр. 1
Выпишите из текста № 1 слова, в которых ударными являются долгие гласные / i: /, / R /, / u: / и дифтонги / ei /, / ai / (по 5-7 слов на каждый звук). Подчеркните буквы или сочетания букв, передающих эти звуки.

Упр. 2
Запишите следующие слова в транскрипции,    прочтите их вслух:
restorative    encourage    main
justice    reduce    explain
initiative    conscious    behavior

Упр. 3
Прочитайте текст № 1 вслух.

II. Грамматические упражнения контрольной по английскому языку

Упр. 4
а)    Выпишите из текста № 1 четыре предложения с модальными глаголами и их эквивалентами. Подчеркните модальные глаголы. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
б)    В следующих предложениях подчеркните модальные глаголы или их эквиваленты. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1.    The system of penal institutions is to be reformed.
2.    The witness of the murder couldn't sleep.
3.    You should drive carefully on a busy road.
4.    When you join the police you must learn to shoot.

Упр. 5
а)    Найдите в тексте № 1 одно предложение с неопределенным     местоимением     someone,     переведите его;
б)    В данных предложениях подчеркните неопределенные и отрицательные местоимения или их производные. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1.    Defendants are not entitled to a jury of any particular composition.
2.    The US Supreme court has upheld smaller juries in some cases.
3.    There is no evidence that the death penalty functions as a deterrent.
4.    There was nobody in the laboratory.
5.    Have we got anything to charge him with?


Упр. 6
а)    Выпишите из текста № 1 и переведите три предложения, в которых глагол-сказуемое стоит в Present Perfect.
б)    В следующих предложениях подчеркните глаголы-сказуемые, определите их временную форму и переведите предложения на русский язык.

1.    John couldn't go to work because he had had a road accident.
2.    By the time we get to Birmingham we will have driven over two hundred miles.
3.    His car was stolen because he had left it unattended.

Упр. 7
Выпишите из текста № 1 и переведите пять предложений, сказуемые которых употреблены в страдательном залоге. Подчеркните сказуемые.

Упр. 8
Выпишите из текста № 1 и переведите 6 предложений, в которых употреблен инфинитив. Подчеркните его.

Упр. 9
Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на -ing- формы:
1.    We have to find ways of breaking the vicious cycle of repetition of offending.
2.    Restorative justice conference is a way of attempting to achieve this end.
3.    An offender is given an opportunity to become a member of law-abiding society.
4.    Offenders can find it demanding when meeting face to face with their victims.
5.    There are fewer than twenty people still waiting for their sentence.
6.    Police think the man holding the hostages is heavily armed.

Упр. 10
Выпишите из текста № 1 и переведите по два предложения на каждый из следующих видов придаточных предложений:
-    дополнительные
-    определительные
Подчеркните придаточные предложения, укажите их вид.

III. Лексические упражнения
Упр. 11
Выпишите из текста № 1 и переведите:
а)    пять производных слов, образованных с помощью префиксов re-, im-, en-;
б)    четыре наречия с суффиксом -1у.

Упр. 12
Образуйте глаголы от следующих существительных путем конверсии, дайте перевод и существительного, и глагола:

a reform    a sentence    a test
a benefit    a release    a base
an aim    a face    a grant
Выпишите из текста № 1 словосочетания с этими лексическими единицами и укажите, к какой части речи они принадлежат.

Упр. 13
Переведите текст № 2 письменно.

Hanging Vote

The last judicial hanging was back in Britain in 1964. But every two years or so, supporters of capital punishment make an attempt to persuade the Commons to bring back the death penalty. The latest, on Monday, saw the most emphatic rejection of the arguments for bringing back the hangman. The Commons voted by a ratio of two to one that courts should not be able to sentence convicted murderers to death. Such a decisive vote will settle the matter for some years.
But, inevitably, sooner or later the hanging lobby will make another attempt to attend the law. While MPs have turned their backs on the biblical doctrine of "an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth", among the general public there is strong support for the death penalty. This was one of the main arguments used by supporters of the death penalty the Commons debated. It was argued that the return of the rope would not only reflect public opinion, it would also act as a deterrent to criminals and cut down on the number of murders.
The anti-hanging lobby argues on practical grounds - that there is no evidence that the death penalty functions as a deterrent - and on moral grounds, that the state has no right to deprive its citizens of the right to live.
Notes: the Commons - палата общин, MPs - члены парламента



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