КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ. УРАЛЬСКАЯ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННАЯ ЮРИДИЧЕСКАЯ АКАДЕМИЯ.КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ.
1. Переведите текст и письменно ответьте на вопросы, следующие за ним.
Networks for Advanced Computing
1. Why are computers connected to networks? The answer is clear. Computers linked in networks can interact and can share programs, data and expensive hardware. The physical link is not enough: one computer must be able to understand what a different one is saying.
2. Computer networking is the science of making computers communicate. It is as important as making them think. There are two essential aspects to the networking problem. One is to establish an electronic link between computers along with an orderly process for transferring information over the link error-free. Second, one must establish a common language, so that one computer can understand what the other computer is saying over the link.
3. There are many kinds of networks. The networks I shall discuss are the ones over which many users and machines having many purposes interact directly and rapidly. Although great progress in developing such systems has been made in the past decade, the field is still in its infancy.
4. Linking computers in a network does not guarantee that they will be capable of accomplishing anything. The machines must be made to understand one another. Not surprisingly, it is hard to solve the problem when the differences in hardware and software are great.
5. Computer networks are not limited to communicating conventional data and programs. For example, voice input may be digitized and stored for later retrieval and delivery. A network can be equipped with a voice-recognition system for control or to provide input for programs. In many cases a synthesized voice may convey output to the user. Facsimile input may be entered into a computer to be incorporated with other documents, or for transmission, storage or processing. Video input and output, graphics and computer-generated images are also assumed to be part of the interaction per-formed by a network.
6. Communication between identical types of computers has certain advantages since the system software running on the two machines can be identical. One important problem in getting different kinds of machines to work together is to find a way to mask differences in the basic hardware so that a common software environment can be provided for the machines.
7. Much progress has already been made in developing techniques to exchange data between machines, although many barriers still remain. One of them is to exchange software between heterogeneous systems. Actually, most interactions achieved between heterogeneous machines are limited to sending messages or files from one machine to another, running a program from a remote terminal and so on. Hence, it is necessary to overcome the barriers that prevent heterogeneous machines from communicating.
1. Why are computers connected to networks?
2. Why is the physical link not enough?
3. What is the aim of computer networking?
4. What are two essential aspects to the networking problem?
5. Why is it hard for machines to understand one another''
6. In what form can data and programs be puе in the computer
7. What are advantages of communication between identical types of computers?
8. How can the problem of getting different kinds of machines to work together be solved?
III. Выберите в контрольной работе по английскому языку русские эквиваленты, соответствующие английским словосочетаниям:
1. to link in networks
2. to share a program
3. essential aspects
4. to establish a common lan-guage
5. along with an orderly process
6. to transfer information error-free
7. to interact rapidly
8. the field is in its infancy
9. to accomplish something
10. conventional data
11. to store for later retrieval
12. a voice-recognition system
13. to enter input into a computer
14. to provide common software environment
а. обеспечить общую программную среду
b. важные аспекты
с. соединить в сети
d. передать информацию без ошибок
е. область (знаний) только зарождается
f. coвместно пользоваться программой
g. вводить данные в компьютер
h. выполнить что-то, достичь чего-то
i.обычные, общепринятые данные
j. coxpaнить для последующего поиска к.быстро взаимодействовать
l. система распознавания голоса
m. наряду с упорядоченным процессом
n. создать общий язык
IV. Переведите предложения контрольной работы по английскому языку из одного залога в другой.
1. They connect computers to networks.
2. They have made great progress in networking.
3. One must establish a common language for computers.
4. The paper will discuss networks over which many users and ma¬chines interact directly.
5. One can store voice input for later retrieval.
6. Programmers are developing a voice-recognition system.
7. They have designed video input and output.
V. Переведите следующие предложения контрольной работы по английскому языку.
1. The conference was addressed by a well-known computer designer.
2. The advanced computer architecture was spoken of at the conference.
3. IBM was offered to develop parallel processing.
4. This computer system can be relied upon.
5. The logical organization of the computer is referred to as architecture.
6. Our life is more and more influenced by computerization.
7. Analysis is naturally followed by synthesis.
8. A virus is dealt with by means of a vaccine program that stops the spread of the virus.
VI. Переведите следующие предложения с английского языка, обращая внимание на инфинитив.
1. То solve this second-order differential equation is the first thingto be done.
2. To solve this problem the researchers have been working hard for years.
3. The main purpose of the computer is to solve complicated problems.
4. The problem to be solved is to find the dependence between these phenomena.
5. Information to be processed can be stored in registers, that is, units of hardware.
6. The computations to be performed must be clearly and precisely defined.
7. In order to communicate people use languages.
8. In the same way, languages of one sort or another are used in order to communicate instructions to a computer.
VII. Переведите на английский язык, обращая внимание на место инфинитива. Используйте глагол "to connect computer to"
1. Соединить компьютеры в сеть важно.
2. Наша цель состоит в том, чтобы соединить компьютеры в сеть.
3. Мы хотим соединить компьютеры в сеть.
4. Компьютеры, которые будут соединены в сеть, могут быстро взаимодействовать.
5. Чтобы соединить компьютеры в сеть, вы должны решить ряд проблем.
VIII. Переведите предложения контрольной работы по английскому языку, обращая внимание на оборот Complex Subject:
1. Information is known to be a set of signs that have meaning.
2. These signs are supposed to consist it letters or numbers, digits or characters and other signs.
3. A computer is sure to react differently to different digits or characters.
4. It is expected to react to these signs as units that have meaning.
5. Any information proves to be represented by the binary system including two digits: one(l) and zero(O).
6. Each 1 and 0 is said to be a bit.
7. A bit is assumed to be the smallest part of information.
8. Bits are thought to be grouped in units called bytes.
9. A byte is likely to be the basic unit of information used in mod¬ern computers.
10. A byte is known to consist of eight bits.
11. The bytes are considered to be handled in groups called machine words or just words.
12. There appear to be two basic types of information or words that can be put into a memory cell.
13. They are words that are assumed to be numerical quantities and words that are considered to be computer instructions.
IX. Перепишите предложения, определите инфинитивный оборот (Complex Object, Complex Subject, For Construction), переведите предложения с английского языка.
1. We know Pascal to be the first inventor of the mechanical computer.
2. Pascal is known to be the first inventor of the mechanical computer.
3. Scientists expect complex problems to be solved by computers.
4. The microscope enables scientists to examine very small objects.
5. Scientists make computers increase the output.
6. Computers seem to have unlimited possibilities.
7. For a digital computer to perform reasonable operations information has to be in the form of digits or characters.
X. Выпишите предложения контрольной работы с герундием из 3-его и 7-ого абзацев текста. Переведите их письменно с английского языка.
XI. Подчеркните герундий. Предложения переведите письменно.
1. Logical operations consist in comparing, selecting, sorting, matching and determining.
2. After performing calculations a computer displays the result.
3. Differentiating and integrating are logical operations.
4. By performing reasonable operations with computers we can solve complicated problems.
5. The problem of sharing programmes, data and expensive hardware can be solved by networking.
6. Computer networking is the science of making computers communicate.
7. One important task is finding a way to mask differences in the basic hardware.