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Выполнение контрольной работы по английскому языку

Контрольная работа по английскому языку.

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Ростовский Государственный Университет
Кафедра английского языка гуманитарных факультетов
МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ
и контрольные работы по английскому языку
для студентов-заочников 1 курса юридического факультета

г.Ростов-на-Дону


Учебно-методические указания обсуждены и утверждены на заседании кафедры английского языка гуманитарных факультетов РГУ.

Основной целью обучения студентов английскому языку в неязыковом вузе является практическое владение этим языком, что предполагает при заочном обучении формирование умения самостоятельно читать литературу по специальности с целью извлечения информации из иноязычных источников, развитие навыков устной речи (говорение и аудирование) в рамках определенной Программой тематики. Для контроля понимания прочитанного, в качестве способа передачи полученной при чтении информации, а также как средство обучения, используется перевод.
Особенностью заочного обучения является то, что объем самостоятельной работы студента по выработке речевых навыков и умений значительно превышает объем практических аудиторных занятий с преподавателем, поэтому для того, чтобы добиться успеха, необходимы систематические самостоятельные занятия.
Самостоятельная работа студента по изучению иностранного языка включает в себя заучивание лексических единиц, овладение правилами словообразования и грамматики, чтение текстов вслух в соответствии с правилами чтения, построение вопросов и ответов к текстам, перевод на русский язык (устный и письменный).
Работая над учебным материалом, подлежащим обязательному изучению в течение семестра, студент должен вести словарь, выписывая слова с транскрипцией и в словарной форме. Словарь и тетрадь с выполненными упражнениями должны быть представлены преподавателю.
В выпуске 1 представлены 4 варианта контрольного задания №1 для юридического факультета.
Прежде чем приступить к выполнению контрольной работы, следует изучить и закрепить с помощью упражнений грамматический материал семестра. Контрольные работы должны выполняться аккуратно, четким почерком. При выполнении контрольной работы следует оставлять в тетради широкие поля для замечаний рецензента. Материал контрольной работы следует располагать в тетради по следующему образцу:
Левая страница
Правая страница
Поля
Английский текст
Русский текст
Поля
Задания должны быть выполнены полностью и в той последовательности, в которой они предложены; условия их необходимо переписывать. Контрольная работа должна быть выполнена в отдельной тетради, на обложке которой следует указать номер контрольного задания, номер варианта, факультет и фамилию студента. (Преподавателю на проверку должен быть представлен только один вариант контрольного задания; остальные варианты используются в качестве дополнительного материала).

КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ №1
Для того, чтобы правильно выполнить контрольное задание №1, необходимо усвоить следующий грамматический материал:
1) Имя существительное. Множественное число. Артикли и предлоги как показатели имени существительного. Выражение падежных отношений в английском языке с помощью предлогов и окончания –‘s. Существительное в функции определения и его перевод на русский язык.
2) Имя прилагательное. Степени сравнения имен прилагательных. Конструкции типа the more… the less; as…as; not so…as.
3) Числительное: количественные, порядковые, употребление артикля с числительными.
4) Местоимение: личные, притяжательные, вопросительные, указательные, неопределенные и отрицательные местоимения, функции местоимения "it”.
5) Глагол: видо-временные формы глагола: Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect, Perfect Continuous в действительном залоге. Спряжение глаголов to be, to have в Indefinite (Present, Past, Future). Функции глаголов "to be”, "to have”. Повелительное наклонение и его отрицательная форма. Модальные глаголы.
6) Простое распространенное предложение: порядок слов повествовательного, побудительного, вопросительного и отрицательного предложения. Оборот there + be.
7) Основные случаи словообразования: суффиксы существительных, прилагательных, глаголов, отрицательные префиксы.


Контрольная работа по английскому языку

Вариант 1

I. Переведите предложения  контрольной работы по английскому языку на русский язык, обращая внимание на функции местоимения "it”.
1. It is true that avoiding litigation is usually desirable, but it is not always so.
2. Litigation is a game; in other words it has winners and losers.
3. The executive branch can write a law and send it to the legislative branch for approval.
4. There is no doubt that it is the job of the Parliament.
5. It is difficult, but possible to become a good lawyer.
II. Поставьте следующие предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную форму и переведите их на русский язык.
1. There are some difficulties in understanding the party policy in Great Britain.
2. Somebody was giving evidence when the judge entered the room.
3. Every university student should know something about the judicial system of Great Britain.
III. Определите функцию глаголов "to be” и "to have” и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. He has no grounds for his complaint.
2. Continental, or Roman Law, has developed in most of continental Europe, Latin America and many countries in Asia.
3. Another important feature of the Common Law tradition is Equity.
4. He had to claim his money back after the breach of the contract.
5. The state, not the courts, was to make law.
6. He is grounding his complaint at the moment.
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IV. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий.
1. The existing system benefits the leading parties and discriminates against the smaller parties.
2. The House of Commons is the main place where legislation and the most important decisions of the Government are criticized and assessed.
3. California has a case law tradition, but its laws are codified as extensively as many Continental systems.
4. If you want to make a will the best man to advise you is a solicitor.
5. The more serious the crime is, the heavier punishment the criminal has.
V. Поставьте глаголы, данные в скобках, в соответствующем времени и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. The Crown Court (to hear) this appeal from the magistrates’ court two weeks ago.
2. The US Congress (to consist) of two houses: the House of Representatives and the Senate.
3. The committee already (to pass) this bill, don’t you know?
4. After the Prime Minister (to form) his Cabinet, he selected the rest of his ministry.
5. I entered the Court at the moment when the policeman (to give) evidence.

6. The jury (to announce) their decision in 2 hours.


VI. Переведите предложения на английский язык, обращая внимание на модальные глаголы.
1. Выборы должны проводиться каждые четыре года.
2. Такая политическая система может быть гибкой.
3. Судье пришлось ждать свидетелей.
4. Почему вы не могли обсудить историю этого государства?
5. Правительству следует рассмотреть предложения оппозиции.


Контрольная работа по английскому языку

VII. Прочитайте текст, выпишите и переведите на русский язык по одному предложению с:

а) существительным в функции определения;
б) существительным в притяжательном падеже;
в) конструкцией "there + be”.
ORIGINS OF ENGLISH LAWS
1. The English judicial system is the product of long historical development. The strong sense for tradition and its preservation in English society was responsible for the fact that some judicial forms and institutions have survived centuries. For this reason English law is very complex.
2. This article presents a brief factual survey of the law system in England. Every law system corresponds to the class character of the society it serves and the English system of law is no exception to this rule. Over the centuries English law has developed to protect, above all, the class interests of the ruling class. This fundamental feature of English law has not changed in any way even today.
3. There is no single body of law in the United Kingdom. There is, however, a similarity between the systems of England and Wales and that of Northern Ireland. Scotland has its own distinctive legal system and law courts, but on many points there is fundamental identity with the rest of the United Kingdom as well. A large volume of modern legislation applies throughout the United Kingdom.
4. Another common feature is the distinction made between criminal law (concerned with the wrongs against the community as a whole) and civil law (concerned with the rights, duties and obligations of individuals towards one another).
5. The sources of law in the United Kingdom include: unwritten, or common law, and written, or statute law. Unwritten or common law is based on
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the past decisions of judges, i.e. on a judicial precedent. It is the ancient law of the land deduced from customs and interpreted in court cases by the judges. Though common law has never been defined or codified, it performs the basis of law except when superseded by legislation. It is also referred to as "case-law” or "judge-made law”.
6. Written, or statute law, is based on statutes. Statutes comprise Acts of Parliament and subordinate legislation made under powers conferred by Parliament (e.g. Orders in Council, orders and regulations made by a minister with the authority of Parliament, by-laws made by local government). Statute law is more modern than common law. Common law began to develop in the 12th century, and law-making by Parliament started in the 13th century. However, most statutes have been enacted only during the past century. Since Parliament is the supreme law-making body in the United Kingdom, Acts of Parliament take precedence over all other sources of law.
7. In the Middle Ages a supplementary system of law, known as Equity, came into being to provide and enforce more effective protection for existing legal rights. People sent petitions to the King asking him to exercise his power of justice. The King’s chief minister, the Lord Chancellor, dealt with these grievances himself and the decisions depended upon what the Chancellor thought was "equitable” or "fair”. In the 15th century a special Court of Chancery was set up and a system of rules called "rules of Equity” developed as distinguished from "rules of Common Law”. The Common Law Courts and the Court of Chancery existed as independent courts until 1873, when Equity and Common Law jurisdictions were merged, though its former work is still, by rules of the court, chiefly discharged by Chancery division, and where there is uncertainty Equity takes precedence. Thus, English law consists of the rules of Common Law and Equity, embodied in precedents, changed or supplemented in part by Acts of Parliament.
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VIII. Перепишите и переведите письменно на русский язык абзацы 2, 3, и 7.
IX. Дайте ответ на вопрос:

What is the supreme law-making body in the United Kingdom?


Контрольная работа по английскому языку


Вариант 2
I. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на функции местоимения "it”.
1. It is not surprising that this company took part in a number of legal actions.
2. Avoiding litigation (or using it when it can be beneficial) should become an important part of any business’s strategic plans.
3. This system is flexible and Acts of Parliament can alter it.
4. Everybody knows that it was the aim of the opposition party at the last elections.
5. It is desirable to choose a lawyer who is an expert in civil cases.
II. Поставьте следующие предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную форму и переведите их на русский язык.
1. There are some special benches for the Government and the Opposition in the House of Lords.
2. Somebody must be present as a witness when you sign your will.
3. Today’s newspapers published something important about the changes in the judicial system of the USA.
III. Определите функцию глаголов "to be” и "to have” и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. A contract usually contains many clauses about what kinds of goods are to be supplied; who is to pay for transport; what prices are to be paid.
2. His claim for damages will be invalid.
3. The doctrine of precedent is a central feature of modern Common Law systems.
4. The government is considering various proposals, but there are arguments for and against the division.
5. He has to ground his complaint if he wants to have a compensation.
6. In recent times lawyers have made efforts to make their profession less mysterious.
IV. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий.
1. The party that wins the greatest number of seats in Parliament takes power.
2. District councils provide services that cover a smaller area, where local control is more important.
3. Some modern legislation is as precise and comprehensive as a code in the Continental system.
4. Solicitors are not so remote as barristers are.
5. The more experienced a lawyer is in the United States, the greater salary he has.
V. Поставьте глаголы, данные в скобках, в соответствующем времени и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. The leader of the majority party in the House of Commons usually (to become) Prime Minister.
2. The modern political system of Great Britain (to begin) over 200 years ago.
3. The Labour party (to have) strong links with trade unions since the date of its foundation.
4. You can’t see the investigator now, he (to discuss) the case with the judge.
5. The students (to know) the results of the examination next week.
6. The two countries signed the treaty after the war (to finish).

VI. Переведите предложения на английский язык, обращая внимание на модальные глаголы.
1. Юристы могут работать в различных государственных учреждениях.
2. Члены палаты общин должны рассматривать и обсуждать все законопроекты.
3. Свидетелям придется дать показания во время суда.
4. Что вы сможете рассказать о юридической системе Великобритании на завтрашнем экзамене?

5. Никому не следует вмешиваться во внутренние дела этого государства.

Контрольная работа по английскому языку

VII. Прочитайте текст, выпишите и переведите на русский язык по одному предложению с:
а) существительным в функции определения;
б) существительным в притяжательном падеже;
в) конструкцией "there + be”.
CRIMINAL LAW
1. The courts of criminal jurisdiction include: the magistrates’ courts, which try the less serious offences and conduct preliminary inquires into the more serious offences; Crown Courts which try such cases as: homicide, violence against the person (excluding homicide), sexual offences, burglary, robbery, theft and handling stolen goods, fraud and forgery, criminal damage and other offences.
2. Magistrates’ courts deal with about 98% of criminal cases in England and Wales, and conduct preliminary investigations into more serious offences. Every district has a magistrates’ court. The Crown courts, situated in a number of towns and cities, take all criminal work above the level of magistrates’ courts and trials are held before a jury.
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3. Magistrates’ courts hear and determine charges against people accused of "summary offences”, that is those that can be legally disposed of by magistrates sitting without a jury. Magistrates, or Justices of the Peace, as they are also called (JPs for short), are advised on points of law and procedure by a clerk to the justices or an assistant who is legally qualified and is also in charge of the court’s administrative arrangements. Most magistrates have little training in law, though they are obliged to attend some appropriate courses. They receive no payment for their work.
4. Magistrates can only try people for minor offences and cannot usually give prison sentences totalling more than six months. If after hearing all the evidence they decide that the crime is a serious one, they must send the accused for trial to a higher court – the Crown Court.
5. A person convicted by a magistrates’ court may appeal to the Crown Court against the sentence or conviction. When the appeal is on a point of law, either the prosecutor or the defendant may appeal from the magistrates’ court to the High Court, which sits in London and in some regional centers. Appeals from the Crown Court, either against conviction or against sentence, are usually made to the Court of Criminal Appeal. The court may annul the conviction, or it may reduce the sentence. The highest court of appeal is the House of Lords.
6. In inner London and in some other large urban areas where work is heavy and continuous, there are also professional "stipendiary” magistrates who are full-time, salaried and legally qualified. There are only about forty stipendiary magistrates in England, and a few in Wales.
7. In most places, however, the magistrates are Justices of the Peace, who have been appointed by the Lord Chancellor on the advice of special advisory committees, of which there is one for each county. They are usually people who hold prominent positions in their locality, and many of them are drawn from the upper classes. Some steps have been taken recently to choose the new justices from wider social backgrounds.
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8. Magistrates’ courts are sometimes called "courts of summary jurisdiction” or "petty sessions” of "police courts”. When a court sits it must have at least two justices on it, and not more than seven. The justices take turns at attending court sessions.
9. The office of magistrates dates back to the year 1360, when they were designed to be a kind of policemen, whose duty was to search out and arrest offenders, as well as to give evidence against them at their trials. In the course of time they acquired such a wide range of duties that by the middle of the nineteenth century they were almost entirely responsible for the government of counties. However, towards the end of the nineteenth century the establishment of other administrative authorities, in particular County Councils in 1888, relieved the county magistrates of their governmental responsibilities, leaving them judicial functions.
VIII. Перепишите и переведите письменно на русский язык абзацы 3, 4, 6,7 и 8.
IX. Дайте ответ на вопрос:
What was the duty of the magistrate’s office originally?
Вариант 3
I. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на функции местоимения "it”.
1. Each member of the United Nations undertakes to comply with the decisions of the International Court of Justice in any case to which it is a party.
2. It is the duty of a state to protect its citizens at home and abroad.
3. It is difficult to describe in a few general words the functions and powers of the police authorities.
4. It should be noted that Russia has signed both the European Convention on Human Rights and the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
5. We find it difficult to determine whether the investigation is a success or a failure.
II. Поставьте следующие предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную форму и переведите их на русский язык.
1. There is something wrong with the evidence given by the witness yesterday.
2. The judge has some doubts concerning the case.
3. Somebody tried to prove that he was guilty.
III. Определите функцию глаголов "to be” и "to have” и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. He has already grounded his complaint and is going to get a compensation.
2. Each country in the world has its own system of law.
3. A person often had to begin actions in different courts in order to get a satisfactory solution.
4. He is to ground his complaint and to get a compensation.
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5. His claim was to recover damages.
6. While he is waiting for the witness to come he is examining the evidence.
IV. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий.
1. This book is about the most notorious criminals the world has ever known.
2. The graver crimes a person commits, the more serious punishment he deserves.
3. The House of Lords is not as powerful as that of Commons.
4. The best way to combat crime is to improve the living standards of the people.
5. It is easier to make laws than to enforce them.
V. Поставьте глаголы, данные в скобках, в соответствующем времени и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. After the Norman conquest in 1066, the King’s judges gradually (to unite) the different local customs into a single body of general principles which they applied at the royal courts.
2. One of the problems which they (to discuss) now concerns the arrest of the criminal.
3. The police (to arrest) just the hijackers.
4. A bill (to become) a law in two weeks.
5. Newspapers often (to publish) information on economic crimes.
6. After the president (to recommend) programs and laws to Congress he requested money for federal government operations.
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VI. Переведите предложения на английский язык, обращая внимание на модальные глаголы.
1. Родителям пришлось заплатить большой выкуп за своего похищенного сына.
2. В соответствии с договором ни одна из сторон не может внести в него никакие изменения.
3. Многие юристы считают, что английское законодательство должно приобрести более систематизированную форму.
4. Полиции следует делать все возможное для предупреждения преступлений.
5. Адвокат смог доказать невиновность обвиняемого.
VII. Прочитайте текст, выпишите и переведите на русский язык по одному предложению с:
а) существительным в функции определения;
б) существительным в притяжательном падеже;
в) конструкцией "there + be”.
CROWN COURTS
1. There are special courts of criminal jurisdiction, called Crown Courts that are responsible for trials of the more serious cases. When a criminal case is not dealt with finally in a magistrates’ court, it goes for trial in a Crown court. There are Crown Courts in about a hundred towns. They are presided over by a judge. The most serious offences are dealt with by High Court judges from London. Other offences of not quite such a serious nature are dealt with by circuit (travelling) judges. In London, however, prisoners accused of serious offences are tried at the Old Bailey, the Central Criminal Court.
2. All contested trials in the court take place before a jury of twelve. The duty of the judge is first of all to see that the trial is conducted properly, secondly, to give advice to the jury before asking for its verdict, and finally, if
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the jury finds the accused "guilty” to decide on the penalty. The Crown Court may impose a fine of any amount on a convicted offender and within the maximum penalty determined by Parliament. The judge is helped in deciding on the penalty by two Justices of the Peace (JPs for short) who have been sitting beside him throughout the proceedings.
3. In a Crown court the accused person when brought into the "dock” is asked by the Clerk if he is guilty or not guilty. If he replies not guilty, then he must be tried to establish this fact. If he pleads guilty the court is at liberty to sentence him without trial, but in practice he is usually advised by the judge to substitute a plea of not guilty so that the circumstances may be properly investigated. When the jury has been sworn in, it takes its place in the "jury-box” and the trial begins.
4. The case is explained to the jury by the leading counsel for the prosecution. The prosecution builds up its case by presenting witnesses, who go into the witness-box where they are questioned by the prosecution barrister (or "counsel”), so that a story of the supposed crime can be built up. Each witness may be cross-examined by the other side on the evidence which he has given. When the examination of the Crown witnesses is concluded, the defence may call witnesses, including the accused himself, in an attempt to show that he is innocent; these witnesses may be cross-examined by the other side.
5. When this is completed, the judge sums up the evidence for the benefit of the jury and instructs them on points of law involved, presenting them with the problem they have to decide. The twelve members of the jury retire to a room where they are locked in and left alone until they agree on a verdict. Until 1966 in England and Wales all members of the jury had to be in agreement. Now, at least ten of the twelve jury members must agree before a verdict can be given. Normally the jury do agree, though sometimes only after many hours. If the jury finds the accused guilty, then the judge "pronounces sentence”. On the other hand, if the accused is proved to be innocent, then he is acquitted. A police
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witness gives evidence about the previous convictions (if any) of the prisoner, and also about his character.
6. If a person is found guilty of a small offence and has no previous conviction, he may receive no punishment at all. On the other hand, he may be placed on probation for a certain period, that is, he will be left at liberty, but under the supervision of a probation officer, who is a trained social worker. Punishments may be in the form of fines or imprisonment.
7. Punishment by death was abolished for a trial period of five years in 1965. In December 1969 the Labour Home Secretary introduced a bill abolishing the death penalty permanently. There was a "free vote” in Parliament, in which each member was free to vote according to his conscience and not according to party orders. The bill was passed by 343 votes to 185.
VIII. Перепишите и переведите письменно на русский язык абзацы 3, 4, 5.
IX. Дайте ответ на вопрос:
When may a person be punished by a fine or probation?

Контрольная работа по английскому языку

Вариант 4
I. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на функции местоимения "it”.
1. It is necessary to know that the European Convention on Human Rights is based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
2. It must be pointed out that the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948.
3. It is the right of every citizen to have a fair trial.
4. The European Convention on Human Rights was drafted under the auspices of the Council of Europe. Nowadays it is concerned mainly with civil and political rights.
5. We consider it important to stress that only states which are parties to the European Commission of Human Rights have the right to bring a case before the European Court of Human Rights.
II. Поставьте следующие предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную форму и переведите их на русский язык.
1. Somebody testified in his favour and he won the case.
2. There was something at the scene of crime that could be used as the evidence against him.
3. The government takes some serious measures for the prevention of crime.
III. Определите функцию глаголов "to be” и "to have” и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. His aim is to ground his complaint today.
2. He was claiming his money back because his partner had broken the contract.
3. He was to claim his money back in court yesterday but the hearing was cancelled.
4. Common Law has had a stronger influence in such countries as Spain.
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5. In such a case the lawyer has to transfer one of his clients to another lawyer.

6. He had a claim for damages after the other party had broken the contract.

Контрольная работа по английскому языку


IV. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий.
1. Right up to the end of the seventeenth century English judges were more or less tools of the monarch.
2. The worst consequence of the economic crisis is a substantial increase in crime rate.
3. The Netherlands and Portugal inflict the mildest sanctions the other European countries have ever applied for corruption crimes.
4. Nothing is ever as simple as it seems.
5. The higher living standards the society has, the fewer crimes are committed.
V. Поставьте глаголы, данные в скобках, в соответствующем времени и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. After the jury (to fail) to reach a unanimous decision the case was dismissed.
2. The trial by jury (to become) compulsory in the 12th century.
3. The plaintiff is a person who (to bring) an action in civil law.
4. Next week the President (to sign) a very important agreement.
5. The accused fainted when the judge (to read) the sentence.
6. The barrister is busy at the moment, he (to examine) the witness.
VI. Переведите предложения на английский язык, обращая внимание на модальные глаголы.
1. Премьер-Министр сможет посетить Соединенные Штаты Америки в следующем месяце.
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2. Полиции следует арестовать его, потому что он преступник.
3. Он не мог поддержать это решение, так как оно противоречило фактам.
4. Ответчику пришлось компенсировать истцу все убытки.
5. Товары должны быть доставлены в соответствии с договором.
VII. Прочитайте текст, выпишите и переведите на русский язык по одному предложению с:
а) существительным в функции определения;
б) существительным в притяжательном падеже;

в) конструкцией "there + be”.

Контрольная работа по английскому языку

CIVIL COURTS
1. The main courts of civil jurisdiction in England and Wales are the county courts, which are the courts for the lesser cases, and the High Court, where more important cases are tried. Most appeals go to the Court of Appeal. If the appeal is refused there can be a final appeal to the House of Lords, but this rarely happens.
2. There are about 300 county courts in England and Wales. The county court is descended from the shire court of Anglo-Saxon times. These courts were established in 1846 in order to facilitate the recovery of small debts. The jurisdiction of these courts covers actions founded upon contract and tort (injury, harmful act, for which a civil action can be brought), mortgage cases, and actions for the recovery of land. Other matters dealt with by the county courts include landlord and tenant and adoption cases.
3. The county court judge is a salaried barrister. He sits alone and decides cases without a jury. In addition to the above-mentioned cases the county court judge hears cases under the Rent Restriction Acts. He takes no criminal cases, but hears a great variety of civil disputes, such as those arising out of hire-purchase agreements, or nuisances, or traffic accidents, and so on, if the claim
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does not exceed one hundred, or, if the defendant does not object, two hundred pounds.

Контрольная работа по английскому языку

4. In a civil suit the solicitor prepares the case for the courts, and instructs a barrister to plead the case in court. A barrister’s instructions are called a brief. The barristers, who represent the plaintiff, i.e. the person sued, argue out the case in the court, and discuss the various points of law. Finally the judge pronounces his judgment. If the plaintiff is not satisfied with the decision of the court, he can appeal to a higher court.
5. The High Court of Justice is a small tribunal with no more than 75 judges. The Queen formally appoints the judges on the recommendation of the Lord Chancellor, who makes the real selection. The High Court judges receive salaries and they must retire at the age of 75. The High Court of Justice has several Divisions: the Chancery Division, the Family Division and the Queen’s Bench Division. These divisions are independent of one another. The Chancery Division consists of the Lord Chancellor and ten judges, and deals with questions of company law, bankruptcy, the administration of the estates of people who have died and other similar matters. The Family Division which deals with divorce and questions arising out of wills has replaced the Probate, Divorce and Admiralty Division. All the judges of these two Divisions remain in London. The Queen’s Bench Division consists of the Lord Chief Justice and thirty-nine other judges, who are engaged in civil work in London, and the Central Criminal Court (the "Old Bailey”) also in London, and who tour the provincial crown courts. This division is concerned with the ordinary business of the Common Law, suits for damages.
6. Much pageantry surrounded these judges when on circuit. they were greeted with trumpets and fanfares when they arrived at court and drove in special official cars. High court judges still wear robes and large gray wigs in court but much of the ceremony which used to accompany the assize courts was abolished with the reform of 1972. A High Court judge has the title The Honourable Mr Justice ...; and he is automatically given a knighthood. If he is

promoted to the Court of Appeal, he becomes Lord Justice …, though he is usually still a knight and not a peer.

Контрольная работа по английскому языку

7. The Court of Appeal is the intermediate appellate tribunal. For civil appeals, the court normally sits in panels of three Lord Justices, with the senior Lord Justice presiding. The Court of Appeal hears appeals from the High Court and from a few specialized administrative tribunals. Four divisions of the court normally sit for civil business. The Court of Appeal provides the appellate review for most cases.
8. The House of Lords is the highest court in England. For judicial purposes it is usually composed only of the Lords of Appeal in Ordinary. The Lord Chancellor is the highest judge in the kingdom. The law lords receive life peerage upon their appointment to the House. The House of Lords hears appeals from the English Court of Appeals. In exceptional circumstances it may hear direct appeals from the High Court. It is the court of last resort.
VIII. Перепишите и переведите письменно на русский язык абзацы 2, 3, 7 и 8.
IX. Дайте ответ на вопрос:
Who is a plaintiff represented by?
Контрольная работа по английскому языку.

English